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Friday, 22 June 2012

SMS Based Controlling Machines Using GSM Mobile and microcontroller 8051

The devices are connected to the 8051 microcontroller using relays and optocouplers. These relay are controlled through software to switch ON or OFF the device as required. For every message received to microcontroller through mobile phone in form of SMS, the controller will check for the valid and pre-define formate. If the message is correct the controller will perform the operation. microcontroller interfacing with lcd and gsm to display the msg sent to interfaced gsm

The hardware board contains microcontroller AT89c52 at the heart of the system. The microcontroller is interfaced with GSM Modem of mobile phone via MAX232 level convertor. It is used to convert RS232 voltage levels to TTL voltage levels. display the message in notice board with the help of mobile 8051 project gsm architecture based motor on and off circuit diagram

The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier in order to operate.controlling machines using gsm mobile sms services
Generally, computers use AT commands to control modems. Reading of message from the SIM card inserted into the modem is done by sending the appropriate AT command to the modem.
The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA- 232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. Each driver converts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels.
SMS Based Controlling Machines Using GSM Mobile and microcontroller 8051 tutorial tracker gps gsm



Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems improve missile accuracy by improving its "Single Shot Kill Probability" (SSKP), which is part of combat survivability calculations associated with salvo combat model.
These guidance technologies can generally be divided up into a number of categories, with the broadest categories being "active," "passive" and "preset" guidance. Missiles and guided bombs generally use similar types of guidance system, the difference between the two being that missiles are powered by an onboard engine, whereas guided bombs rely on the speed and height of the launch aircraft for propulsion
Guidance systems are divided into different categories according to what type of target they are designed for - either fixed targets or moving targets. The weapons can be divided into two broad categories, Go-Onto-Target (GOT) and Go-Onto-Location-in-Space (GOLIS) guidance systems. A GOT missile can target either a moving or fixed target, whereas a GOLIS weapon is limited to a stationary or near-stationary target. The trajectory that a missile takes while attacking a moving target is dependent upon the movement of the target. Also, a moving target can be an immediate threat to the sender of the missile. The target needs to be eliminated in a timely fashion in order to preserve the integrity of the sender.

PWM generation of microcontroller 8051 for SCR or triac power control

The code of program for PWM with microcontroller 8051 for SCR or triac power control is written c lanuage using keil compiler. The c-code for PWM is as follows.
/* This project is develop to generate two seperate channel PWM signals at 50HZ frequency
The duty cycle of the pulses is variable subject to the input on Port1 and port2.
The output PWM signal can be used to drive SCR or triacs to control the phase angle and power of any load with suitable hardware interface.
Please not that in this project the OPAMP are used to convert the pulses to 0 - 5 V, means you can use it in as two channel DAC also.
But for triac or SCR interface the OPAMP circuit will be re-placed with proper optocoupler like moc3020 and scrs.89c51 as pwm controller

unsigned char ch_count[2];// two channel counts array
unsigned char ch_duty_level[2];// level of the duty cycle
bit int_10ms;// this is a flag wich is set every 10msec time period
sbit PWM1 = P3^6;
sbit PWM2 = P3^7;
sbit indicator = P3^5;
void external_interrupt (void) interrupt 0
// external interrupt for zero crossing dectection
// on zero crossing detection, counts are updated for both PWM channels
PWM1=0; // the output is active low
PWM2 =0;//89c51 as pwm controller
int_10ms = 1; // 10msec flag is set
void timer_interrupt (void) interrupt 1
// The timer 0 is used for the duty cycle adjustement of two channel PWM
TL0 = 0XE2; //reset timer LSB

if(--ch_count[0]==0) PWM1 = 1;
// each time the timer interrupt occur the counts are decreased by one and on reaching zero
if(--ch_count[1]==0) PWM2 = 1;
// the outputs are turned off, as the out put is active low

void main (void)

ET0 = 1; // enables the Timer 0 interrupt of 8051
TMOD = 0x02;
// timer mode register, timer 0 is used in mode 2
TL0 = 0XE2; // Initialize timer0 LSB
TR0 = 1; // timer 0 is activated
EX0 = 1; // external inturpt is activated
IT0 = 1;
EA = 1;
ch_duty_level[0] = 30; // dummy value for duty cycle for PWM 1
ch_duty_level[1] = 60; // dummy value for duty cycle for PWM 2
while (1) // endless loop
if( int_10ms){
int_10ms = 0;
ch_duty_level[0] = P1;
// take the input value of duty cycle for PWM 1 fromport1 of the 8051
ch_duty_level[1] = P2;
// take the input value of duty cycle for PWM 2 fromport1 of the 8051
indicator =~ indicator;

Interfacing GSM modems


The GSM net used by cell phones provides a low cost, long range, wireless communication channel for applications that need connectivity rather than high data rates. Machinery such as industrial refrigerators and freezers, HVAC, vending machines, vehicle service etc. could benefit from being connected to a GSM system.
Take a given example. A garage offers a very special package to their customers. Based on the mechanics knowledge and the given vehicle, tailored service intervals can be specified. A part of the service agreement is installation of a GSM modem in the vehicle. An onboard service application can then notify the garage when the vehicle approaches its service interval. The garage will schedule an appointment and inform the customer.
The customer will benefit from a reliable and well-serviced vehicle at a minimum cost. The garage on the other hand can provide excellent customer support, vehicle statistics, efficient work scheduling, and minimum stocks.

Theory of operation
The protocol used by GSM modems for setup and contGSM Interface with PIC Microcontrollerrol is based on the Hayes AT-Command set. The GSM modem specific commands are adapted to the services offered by a GSM modem such as: text messaging, calling a given Phone number, deleting memory locations etc. Since the main objective for this application note is to show how to send and receive text messages, only a subset of the AT-Command set needs to be implemented.

Float cum Boost Charger


The report discusses the system description. Operating controls and other features of 48V Float-Cum-Boost charger. The system is meant for keeping the battery in a healthy condition and to supply DC loads.

System Description

The charger has two modes. Float and boost. In this float mode, the FCBC supplies the DC load and the trickle charging current of the battery. Normally the _7. will be floated across the FCBC. Boost mode is meant for charging the battery.

Automatic charging of Battery is possible in the float mode. In this mode,when the current drawn by the battery exceeds the set value, the charger will automatically charge mode to charge the battery. once the battery current fails the charger returns to float mode. During mains fail, charger remains OFF and load supplied by the battery.

Automatic Over Speed Detector


India is a country where the maximum number of deaths occurs due to road accidents and most of these occur due to over speeding. Manifold attempts have been made to produce reliable and efficient means of detecting over speeding vehicles. The hand held over speeding detector is one such device. The disadvantage of such a device was that it was cumbersome and required expert hands for it's operation; also by the time a speed reading is obtained, the vehicle would long have gone.

Thus the necessities for a more reliable and easily operable device made us think of doing the same as a project. The special features of this device are that it can be operated from as far as 100m and thus the over speeding vehicle can easily be identified.Also, distinct from the conventional speed detector, this device operates not on the echo principle or the Doppler effect, but on highly coherent laser beams. There is also the added advantage that it can be setup on any road and is also easily transferable.

Overview Of The Product

The product is a sleek hand held device that can be operated by the traffic official whenever he observes an over speeding vehicle, to obtain the correct speed of the vehicle. It has a 2 digit 7-segment display, which can display speeds up to 97km/h. It also has two switches, which are used for starting the device and for enabling it only when required. The state of the device is indicted by three status indicating LEDs which display the following conditions: a green LED indicating power on, an orange LED indicating the set or enabled condition, and a red LED indicating speeds in excess of 100 km/h.

This sleek and handy version enables the traffic official to operate the device without any problem and with utmost ease. Moreover, the product uses only the most commonly available CMOS ics, which facilitate easy maintenance. The circuit in itself is very simple and easy to implement so that troubleshooting is made very simple. The other features of the device are that it can be easily set upon any road and can be easily transferred. Also, since this can operate on any source of light, it is easily implementable and guarantees satisfactory performance.

Principle Of Operation

The operation of "Over speed Detector" depends on the simple one-dimensional equation of motion, i.e. speed= distance /time. It consists basically of a source - sensor couple and a hand held device. The source- sensor couple is placed on the road at a distance of 1m from each other.When the operator gets a visual indication that a vehicle is over speeding, he can initiate the device from as far as 100m.When the vehicle cuts the first laser beam, the sensor is set and the transition pulse is transferred to the hand held device.

The device now starts counting from a fixed clock. When the vehicle cuts the second laser beam, the transition pulse is again transferred to the device, which stops the counting. What we have now obtained is the time taken for the vehicle to cover a distance of 1m. This count is then decoded to obtain the speed-reading. Once the speed-reading is obtained, the official can decided whether the vehicle is over speeding or not as per the rules and regulations pertaining to different road conditions.

A Bi-directional Visitors Counter


This counter can be used to know the number of visitors present in the room at any given time. It is useful for places such as movie halls, buldings and offices. To keep the cost low it uses simple calculator instead of a counter-and display circuit. The calculator can be used as a normal calculator is plugging it off from the circuit. All the components are readily available in market and the circuit is easy to build.

Circuit description

Two transmitter-receiver pairs are used at the passage: One pair comprising light source A (transmitter) and light -dependent resistor LDR1 (receiver) is installed at the entry side of the passage, while the other pair comprising light source B (transmitter) and LDR2 (receiver) is installed exit side of the passage. Light from. two light sources (torches) should continuously fall on the respective light dependent resistors (LDRs), so proper orientation of light beams and LDRs is essential.

Microcontroller Based Barcode Decoder


The microcontroller based Barcode Decoder decodes code 39 .Code 39 was first barcode symbology to encode alphanumeric data strings .It is for this many industrial groups accepted this technology for their labeling requirements .It is widely used as standard for their labeling requirements .It is widely used in variety of applications. Hewlet- Packard's industrial Digital slot Reader is used here.

HP Barcode decoders provide an excellent scanning performance on a wide range of bar-coded cards and badges .When a bar coded card is swiped the slot reader gives a stream of pulses with varying widths .The count corresponding to these pulses widths are stored in the RAM. These are then decoded by the software, which is written in the PL/M -51.PL/M-51 is a high level language for programming various families of microprocessors and microcontroller .The Intel Corporation designed it .later the stored pulse widths are compared with the character set and the decoded output is displayed on the Liquid Crystal Display.

Railway Switches And Signals


Signals, including those used for communication between occupants of a car or train.Indicators, recorders, telegraphic, telephonic, or other similar apparatus when especially designed for use in connection with car or train movements, except manually-set devices, such as train and engine signs and markers capable of general use.

Devices on the roadway, such as signals, switches, circuit closures, gates, etc., actuated or controlled from or by the moving vehicles, except circuit-controllers actuated by the vehicle for the purpose of energizing sectionalized conductors used for supplying propulsion-current thereto.

Automatic train stop and speed control means, the actuation of which is initiated by agencies not on the train or by wheel derailment or defects in train structure and mechanism, the automatic stop, for classification purposes, being considered an equivalent of and substitute for a railway signal; but train stopping and control mechanism cooperating with obstacles fixed in position upon the track which have no moving parts are excluded from this class except when they cooperate with speed-responsive devices on the train.

Safety devices, including derailing switches and blocks, used for preventing accidents caused by the misplacement of switches, disregard of signals etc.The structure of signals, switches, frogs, and crossings and their appurtenances.Mechanism for the manual or other actuation of any of the devices of the class.

Bank Management System


The limited time and resources have restricted us to incorporate, in this project, only a main activities that are performed in a Bank Management System, but utmost care has been taken to make the system efficient and user friendly. “Bank Management System” has been designed to computerized the following functions that are performed by the system:

Customer Details Functions

• Opening a New Account

• Closing the existing Account

• Modification to customer details

• Daily transaction record to require customer A/C

Fixed Deposit Functions

• Open New Fixed Deposit

• Details of Fixed Deposit in Bank

• Close particular Fixed Deposit in Maturity

• Fixed Deposit amount report on Maturity

Report/Details Functions

• Statement of customer Account

a.1) Monthly statement

a.2) Daily statement

• Total numbers of Customer in Bank

• Total balance in Bank

• Individual Customer Report

Authorization Functions

• Password checking functions

. Password change functions

The basic objective of Bank Management System is to generalize and simplify the day to day or activities of Company like New Account opening, Daily transaction, Report/Statements etc. which has to be performed repeatedly on regular basis. To provide efficient, fast, reliable and user-friendly system is the basic motto behind this exercise.

A bank is a primer body is sources of money storage where we can deposit the money when we not much needed and can withdraw whenever require. In Bank, we can issue cheque or draft, which are other way of transferring the money from one source to other.

Collaboration Server


This is a cooperative project requiring the combined efforts of everyone in the class. Participants will be assigned roles in the project, and grades will be based on:

• how well each of your carries out your assigned role, as measured by products you generate.

• quality of the final product.

• conduct of a series of specification, design, and test reviews leading up to the final product qualification test

An Architectural description is provided on the next page, along with additional notes and comments. Also included are job descriptions for each of the roles to be assigned.

Purpose of the Project:

The goal of the Collaboration Server System (CSERV) is to support conduct of shared work activities of software development teams, which may be separated in both space and time. The primary function of CSERV is to support project management activities, rather than project products. That is, the goal of CSERV is to manage people, tasks, and information about software development projects that are registered with it.

The Collaboration Server will support multiple projects, and provide role-based and team-based access to information about each project. The intent is that most project information is viewable by everyone with a Collaboration Server account, but the ability to modify a stored item is, by default, awarded only to the responsible individual for that item. Any project administrator may override that default, and an item's responsible individual may grant permission to modify it to other project members.

The CSERV provides a set of tools for working with a common set of project data for: technical collaboration, documentation, disclosure, scheduling, notification, and monitoring progress against schedule. Since all tools share the same information, they work together to provide a diverse, but consistent view of a project's management information. A change in project data made by one tool is immediately visible by any other tool that accesses the same information.

The main functions provided by the Collaboration Server are:

• Record and disclose project team structures and staffing

Organization chart with contact, job description, and biography information for each project member attached

Announcements of new additions and changes of responsibility

• Support development, recording, disclosure, and assignment of work packages to teams and people.

• Work packages define specific activities, start and completion dates, and responsible individuals (RIs).

• Each package provides links to issues statements and completed work.

• Each package has an associated list of zero or more action items with responsible individuals and creation dates. Usually, the responsible individual will be the package RI, but additional people may be assigned co-responsibility for action completion.

• Completed action items have resolution statement and date.

• Provide scheduling support for each project, team, and individual.

• Work schedules, e.g., start, duration, and completion of each work package

• Alerts for scheduled reviews and collaboration events

• Specialized schedules for reviews, deliveries, and meetings.

Support daily communication between teams.

• Project and team whiteboards

• Project and team Wikis

• Notification service

Document management:

• Web-based document management system

• All documentation is available via webpages, except for correspondence with customers

Project Progress Monitor:

• Evaluate and display progress of work package completion versus schedule for any registered project

• Evaluate and display a set of progress metrics for each team

• i. List of task completions with completion time relative to scheduled completion, in percent of project time ahead of schedule (+) or behind schedule (-).

• ii. Reviews assigned/completed

• iii. Tests assigned/completed

• iv. Documents assigned/completed

Browsing Service:

• Supports the role-based examination of all data stored on the Collaboration Server.

Distributed Clients:

• CSERV Clients provide access to the CSERV server information.

• Each Client supports local project communication tools, e.g., whiteboard, access to Wikis, notification client, and support for digital meetings.

Communication System based on message-passing through sockets and web services:

• Supports client/Collaboration Server communication and Client/Client communication.

• Supports notifications.

Data Management:

• Supports storage of all shared data, as described above, on the Collaboration Server.

• The unit of storage is an item, and every item has one, and only one, responsible individual.

Start and completion dates are associated with each work package. The schedule accesses this information for editing and display. Documentation includes specifications, design documents, code (production, test, and prototypes), schedules, and all other project planning documents. Specifications, design documents, and code are usually held in a repository, but the tools to create specifications and design documents as web pages are provided by CServ. Also, CServ provides the tool or tools to create webpage representations of code.

Wednesday, 6 June 2012

Vehicle Accident Prevention using Eye Blink Sensor

Vehicle accidents are most common if the driving is inadequate. These happen on most factors if the driver is drowsy or if he is alcoholic. Driver drowsiness is recognized as an important factor in the vehicle accidents. It was demonstrated that driving performance deteriorates with increased drowsiness with resulting crashes constituting more than 20% of all vehicle accidents. But the life lost once cannot be re-winded. Advanced technology offers some hope avoid these up to some extent.

This project involves measure and controls the eye blink using IR sensor. The IR transmitter is used to transmit the infrared rays in our eye. The IR receiver is used to receive the reflected infrared rays of eye. If the eye is closed means the output of IR receiver is high otherwise the IR receiver output is low. This to know the eye is closing or opening position. This output is give to logic circuit to indicate the alarm.

This project helps in controlling accidents due to unconsciousness through Eye blink. Here one eye blink sensor is fixed in vehicle where if driver looses consciousness, then it is indicate through alarm.

A car simulator study was designed to collect physiological data for validation of this technology. Methodology for analysis of physiological data, independent assessment of driver drowsiness and development of drowsiness detection algorithm by means of sequential fitting and selection of regression models is presented.

Power Supply Quality Simulator

Kitron had wishes to be able to test and measure how disturbance affects their vehicle electronic units before they have been verified by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in Borås.

This work started with the writing of a demand specification together with Kitron for a product PSQS, Power Supply Quality Simulator, which can generate some test pulses according to a standard for electronic units to Volvos vehicles.

A design proposal was developed with the help the demand specification and was verified with the help of simulations. All electric schematics was designed with the guide of the design proposal. The pulses realized in the works of this thesis are those which Kitron experienced that they have a need to test in their own premises and which are possible to generate with the means available. All work took place at Kitron in Jönköping, the restriction of the work has been the cost of components not to be to high as well as the finished product shall be easily managed.

This study work resulted in a unit which is possible to produce a number of disturbances on the voltage feed to a unit under test. Some pulses have not been completely correct according to Volvos standard. There are large possibilities to further develop PSQS to a unit that follows Volvos standard and even other vehicle producer’s standards.

GSM Based Control System

GSM based Control System” implements the emerging applications of the GSM technology. Using GSM networks, a control system has been proposed that will act as an embedded system which can monitor and control appliances and other devices locally using built-in input and output peripherals.

Remotely the system allows the user to effectively monitor and control the house/office appliances and equipments via the mobile phone set by sending commands in the form of SMS messages and receiving the appliances status.

The main concept behind the project is receiving the sent SMS and processing it further as required to perform several operations. The type of the operation to be performed depends on the nature of the SMS sent. The principle in which the project is based is fairly simple. First, the sent SMS is stored and polled from the receiver mobile station and then the required control signal is generated and sent to the intermediate hardware that we have designed according to the command received in form of the sent message.

We have selected a particular Nokia mobile set (Nokia 3310) for our project. The messages are sent from the mobile set that contain commands in written form which are then processed accordingly to perform the required task. A microcontroller based system has been proposed for our project. There are several terminologies that are used extensively throughout this project report.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): It is a cellular communication standard. SMS (Short Message Service): It is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permit the sending of short messages (also known as text messaging service).

A Single-Stage Grid Connected Inverter Topology for Solar PV Systems With Maximum Power Point Tracking

his paper proposes a high performance, single-stage inverter topology for grid connected PV systems. The proposed configuration can not only boost the usually low photovoltaic (PV) array voltage, but can also convert the solar dc power into high quality ac power for feeding into the grid, while tracking the maximum power from the PV array. Total harmonic distortion of the current, fed into the grid, is restricted as per the IEEE-519 standard.

The proposed topology has several desirable features such as better utilization of the PV array, higher efficiency, low cost and compact size. Further, due to the very nature of the proposed topology, the PV array appears as a floating source to the grid, thereby enhancing the overall safety of the system. A survey of the existing topologies, suitable for single-stage, grid connected PV applications, is carried out and a detailed comparison with the proposed topology is presented.

A complete steady-state analysis, including the design procedure and expressions for peak device stresses, is included. Necessary condition on the modulation index “M” for sinusoidal pulse width modulated control of the proposed inverter topology has also been derived for discontinuous conduction mode operation. All the analytical, simulation and experimental results are presented.

Electronics Info: Robotic Prison Guards in South Korea The Design of Mobile Control Car Security System

The present car alarm systems are still of no match to the well-equipped thieves. It is just a matter of seconds to break through the system.

This paper introduces and describes the design of mobile controlled car security system offering higher level of car security features. The mobile controlled car security is capable of providing an effective two-way communications between the alarm system and the car owner. This system is able to notify the car owner immediately when intrusion is detected.

Additionally, the car owner can remotely control any of the car features anytime at anywhere via a phone call. Based on the GSM positioning concept, this system has the potential to provide car location information to assist in stolen vehicle recovery therefore providing enhancement over the conventional car alarm system.

Voice Morphing

The transition of one speech signal to another is called voice morphing. Speech morphing is similar to image morphing. In image morphing we can smoothly change the texture and shape to another one. In voice morphing we can change the sound of one person to another one. The voice morphing has many applications. By using TTs system we can produce many other different voices. For doing voice transformation we first split it into a number of frames. Then we will apply the transformation into each frame of the signal.

For doing the next step we must find two things that are overall envelope of the sound and pitch information. The most important is the manipulation of the pitch information. For a successful morphing there must be a smooth pitching. The two pitches must match. After the process the frames is converted back into the waveform. During the process we may loses some information and it has to be re-estimated. The voice morphing contains many processes like sampling. The main steps are

  • Preprocessing – It involves acquisition in discrete form and windowing
  • Pitch analysis – This process is used for extracting the pitch. Then format the information’s in the speech signal
  • Morphing
  • Signal re-estimation

Digital Stethoscope


The overall architecture of the system is centered on the ATmega644 microcontroller. The acoustic sensor and keypad are inputs to the MCU, while the LCD, headphones, and MATLAB visualization tool are outputs. Communication with the Flash memory is bi-directional. Figure 2 shows an overview of the system high level design.

Figure 2. System High Level Design

The MCU runs several software interfaces to support the various features of the digital stethoscope. The signal capturing interface uses the analog-to-digital converter to sample the acoustic sensor at 8 kHz. The real-time audio processing module modifies the measured signal based on user settings and outputs it to the 3.5 mm audio socket via pulse-width modulation. The user interface supports the detection and de-bouncing of keypad button presses as well as controls the LCD display to reflect the current state of the system. In addition, the user interface also outputs real-time or recorded data at 100 Hz to a MATLAB utility running on a separate PC for signal visualization and average heart rate calculations. The Flash interface includes a software library for SPI communication to read from and write data to the external Flash memory chip.

Saturday, 2 June 2012

Thursday, 17 May 2012

Electronic engineerig project topics

1. Double image mixing for D stereoscopic vision
2. Common Challenges in Image Processings
3. Radar guidance systems
4. Radio broadcasting system : Design and Application
5. Video Streaming Technology in G Mobile Communication Systems
6. Edubuntu: Linux for Young Human Beings
7. Wireless Video Service in CDMA Systems
8. Challenges to Nextgeneration Internet Internet
9. Network Virus
10. Recent Advances in Speech Recognition and Speaker Verification HDMI and DisplayPort: How it works
11. Flat screen display systems
12. Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid OFDM/CDMA/SFH Approach For Wireless
13. Software based GPS receiver
14. MPEG and H. Scalable Video Coding
15. Security Analysis of Authentication Watermarking System
16. The impact of Cognitive Radio for Exploiting Underused Spectrum
17. Investigation of the types of handovers in wireless communication system
18. Challenges to Next-generation Internet Internet III
19. SpaceTime Coding For FrequencySelective Fading Channels
20. The Winner II Channel Model
21. Radio Frequency Identification: Reader Circuit & Antenna Circuit Design
22. Image Segmentation
23. Biometrics-based pattern recognitions
24. Making D animation movies
25. Analog to Digital Conversion System : Theory and Application
26. WiMax and G LTE : Complement or Competitor
27. ASIC Design Flow
28. Wireless Security Enhancement from the Lowest Layer
29. Performance of Dual Core Processors
30. Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence Technologies in the Classification of Power Quality Events
31. The Difference between ANN and HMM
32. Sound separation techniques
33. Face Recognition Technology
34. Deep Space Engineering Application
35. E-commerce Technology Challenges
36. Trans ocean intercontinental optical links
37. WARP : Wireless Open Access Research Platform
38. Common Challenges in Image Processing
39. HCI for Mobile devices
40. Study of Latest Issues Pertaining to Image Transmission in Wireless Network
41. Mobile and Broadcasting Convergence as a Disruptive Force
42. Adaptive modulation Performance of wideband OFDM communications
43. Spectrum Requirement for WINNER Wireless World Innitiatives II
44. Securing Wireless Communications
45. Jamming and AntiJamming Technologies for Law Enforcement
46. Indoor Positioning
47. Securing Wireless Communication
48. The Marriage of Cryptography and Watermarking
49. The study of propagation models in communication system
50. Radio Frequency Identification: Evolution of Reader Circuit Design
51. Telemedicine
52. MIMO in .n: potential and challenges
53. Equalization and interference cancellation for TDMA wireless
54. The future of wireless network infrastructure
55. EMG Signal Analysis: Detection, Processing, Classification and Applications
56. Sensors and Their Application in Robotics
57. WARP: Wireless Open Access Research Platform
58. MAC Layer enhancement in .n standards
59. Visible Light Communications
60. Soliton pulses in long distance communications
61. Biometrics-applications based pattern recognitions
62. Ambient Intelligence: the networking challenges
63. Challenges to Next Generations Internet Internet
64. Future evolution of microprocessor from single core to multi core
65. MPEG and H. : Scalable Video Coding
66. Deep Space Application
67. Introduction to Biomechatronics System
68. Study on the use of D Image Processing in Medical Imaging
69. Space-Time Coding For Frequency-Selective Fading Channels
70. Quality Assessment Technique for Compressed Video
71. Secure Localization Algorithms
72. Enabling Adaptive Transmission Using Fading Prediction
73. Radio Frequency Identification: Evolution of Transponder Circuit Design
74. Recent advances in speech recognition and speaker verification
75. Jamming and Anti-Jamming Technologies for Law Enforcement
76. Analog To Digital Conversion
77. Introduction to Grid Computing
78. Design of cryptographic protocols
79. The impact of Cognitive Radio for Exploiting Under-used Spectrum
80. A Comparison Study between Bees Algorithm and Ant Algorithm
81. Wireless communication : Past, present and future
82. Radar Tracking System : Concept and Application
83. Equalization and interference cancellation for TDMA wireless Communication systems
84. Radar Guidance System
85. Takeover: A New Vertical Handover Concept
86. Security in the digital documents
87. Comparision of Edge Detection Algorithms
88. Biometrics Application Based Pattern Recognitions
89. Environmental Observation and Forecasting Systems using Wireless Sensor Networks.
90. The Winner Wireless World Innitiatives II Air Interface
91. Earthquake Detection Using FM Radio
92. High performance computing using graphic card and multicore processor
93. Security Analysis of Authentication Watermarking Systems
94. Video compression Techniques
95. FoIP vs VoIP : Design and Application
96. Trans ocean inter-continental optical links
97. Image Compression, Past and Present
98. A comparative study of web cost estimation model for hypermedia applications
99. Radio Frequency Identification: Evolution of Antenna Circuit Design
100. Network Virus : Creation and Prevention
101. WiMax and G LTE : complement or competitor?
102. Transocean Inter Continental Optical Links
103. Security Architectures
104. IPTV vs Mobile TV : Design and Application
105. HDMI and Display Port : How It Works
106. Smart Home Technologies
107. Emerging Communications Technologies and their impact on Military Communication Systems
108. Engineering and Quran
109. Security of the digital documents
110. Performance Evaluation Of Hybrid OFDM/CDMA/SFH Approach For Wireless Multimedia
111. Image Compression System for Mobile Communication : Advancement in the Recent Years
112. Streaming technology in G mobile communication systems
113. Comparison between Vertical Handover Decision Algorithms for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
114. Study of Image Enhancement in Spatial Domain vs Frequency Domain
115. Video Image Compression Techniques
116. Security in WiMAX Networks
117. Comparison Study between Bees Algorithm and Ant Algorithm
118. Comparative Analysis of the Physical Layer Technologies in WiMax and LTE
119. Radar Tracking System: Concept and Application
120. E-Commerce Technology Challenges
121. Wi-Max
122. Single Phase Trams Nehal Shahformer Construction & Design
123. Cable Modem
124. Common Channel Signalling System 7
125. I-Mode
126. Gigabit Ethernet
127. Speed Control Of DC Motor Using Fuzzy Logic
128. Multi Detection & Tracking
129. Distributed Control System
130. Hydrogen Fuel Cell
131. LIDAR
132. Continuous Speech Processing (CSP)
133. Complete Weighing Solution Using Momentum PLC
134. Process Control Through GSM Communication
135. Telerobotics Operations Via Internet
136. Development Cycle For Microcontroller Based Systems
137. Access Network Fiber To The Building(AN-FTTB)
138. Future Telephony Networks
139. Speech To Text Conversion
140. Practical Advances In Asynchronous Design
141. Space Vector PWM
142. Wafer Bumping
143. Impedence Glottography
144. Wireless Sensor N/W Tech And Its Applications Using VLSI
145. Application Of CNC(Computer Numeric Control)
146. Dolby Sound Processing
147. Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier
148. Choices For CNC
149. DSL Technology
150. Covolutional Encoding & Viterbi Decoding
151. Industrial Automation Using I2C Protocol.
152. Control & Cancellation Of ECHO In Telephony
153. Control & Cancellation Of ECHO In Telephony
154. Evdo (Evolation Data Only)
155. IP Spoofing: A Network Threat
156. In Band On Channel Digital Audio Broadcasting
157. Zigbee
158. Optical DWDM Networks
159. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
160. Blue Ray DVD
161. Multicasting
162. Automative Electronics
163. Expert Systems
164. Magnetic RAM
165. Speed Control Of 3 Phase Induction Motor Using V/F
166. On Chip Designing Factors & Their Solution
167. Image Transform & Compression Using Wavelet.
168. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
169. Walking Beam Control Using PLC
170. PID Controller
171. Enhancing Perfprmance Using An ARM Microcontroller With Zero Wait State Flash
172. Peripheral Interface Controller
173. Cordect Tech
174. Convergence & Multimedia Networking
176. FPGA Devlopement And Challenges
177. Effect Of B.W On Speech Intelligibility
178. Huperspectral Inaging
179. Embedded FPGA
180. Harmonic Reduction In AC Drives.
181. Multi Protocol Label Switching In Optical Networks
182. Modbus Protocol
183. Multi Service Network Based On ATM
184. Revolution Of Transistors(Tri Gate Transistors)
185. Biosensors
186. Motes
187. Cybernetic Organism
188. Imax Technology
189. Spam
190. Brain Computer Interfacing
191. Cellular Communication -4G
192. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
193. DEMO
194. CO2 Laser
195. T-Rays
196. Fuel Cell Vehicle
197. Plasma Antenna
198. Wi-Fi
199. Photocopier Technology
200. Seismology and its Instruments
201. Nems-(Nano-electro-Mechanical System)
202. Quantum Cryptography
203. Free Space Optics
204. Data Storage Technologies
205. Grid Computing
206. RTOS(Real time Operating System)
207. Tele Presence Surgery
208. Quantum Comuting , Telepotation & Telemmersion
209. Digital Watermarking
210. Optical Coherence Tomography
211. USB Pen Drive Disk
212. Sensor Network
213. Optical Packet Switching
214. Safe in Flight Mobile Telephony
216. Embedded Webserver
217. Hyper-Threading
218. Internet Over Power Line
219. Multiprotocol Label Switching
220. Morphological image processing
221. Embedded Networking
222. Optical Burst Switching
223. Protected Extensible Authentication Protocols
224. Positron emission tomography
225. Face Recogtion
226. Interplanetary Internet
227. Field Emission Display
228. System on Chip
229. Micro Opto Electro Mechanical System
230. Digital finger Printing
231. Virtual Instrumentation
232. Cellular Mobility
233. Image Enhancement
235. Ibutton
236. Wireless Instant Messaging (WIM)
237. Metor Burst Communications
238. GaAs Technology and its Applications
239. Virtual Private Network (VPN)
240. Mobile IP
241. Digital Steganography
242. Ultra wideband
243. Aerospace telemetry
244. Color Image Processing
245. Digital enhanced Cordless telecommunications
246. Viruse on Mobile
247. Optical Computing : The wave of Future
248. Colour Doppler
249. Image Compression
250. Seiral ATA
251. Signaling System 7 (SS 7)
252. PHY layer of FBWA
253. VDSL
254. E “ Faxing
255. Steganography
256. GPRS
257. Dual Polarized Antenna
258. High Speed Serial Interface
259. Touch screen Technology
260. Interactive Informative Mobile Service
261. Biometrics
262. Digital Display using DLP
263. CPLD
264. Snake Robot
265. E “ Clothing
266. UWB Technology
267. Optical Time Division Multiplexing and De multiplexing Techniques
268. Adaptive Antenna Technology for Mobile Communication
269. Tele “ Immersion
270. Bone growth using electrical stimulation
271. Intel Itanium Processor
272. DAMA
273. Aircraft Security
274. WPAN
275. Sonar
276. System In Package (SiP)
277. Cryptography
278. Projection TV
279. Digital Photography
280. Image Processing and its application
281. Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB)
282. Ad-Hoc Network
283. D “ Amps
284. Low Voltage Differential



A novel dead-time elimination method is presented in this paper for voltage source inverters. This method is based on decomposing of a generic phase-leg into two basic switching cells, which are configured with a controllable switch in series with an uncontrollable diode. Therefore, dead-time is not needed. In comparison to using expensive current sensors, this method pre­cisely determines the load current direction by detecting which anti-parallel diode conducts in a phase-leg. A low-cost diode-con­duction detector is developed to measure the operating state of the anti-parallel diode. In comparison with complicated compen­sators, this method features simple logic and flexible implementa­tion. This method significantly reduces the output distortion and regains the output RMS value. The principle of the proposed dead-time elimination method is described in detail. Simulation and ex­perimental results are given to demonstrate the validity and fea­tures of this new method.

  1. Introduction

To avoid shoot-though in voltage source inverters (VSI), dead-time, a small interval during which both the upper and lower switches in a phase-leg are off, is introduced into the standard pulse width modulation (PWM) control of VSIs. How­ever, such a blanking time can cause problems such as output waveform distortion and fundamental voltage loss in VSIs, es­pecially when the output voltage is low.

To overcome dead-time effects, most solutions focus on dead-time compensation by introducing complicated PWM compensators and expensive current detection hardware. In practice, the dead-time varies with the gate drive path propa­gation delay, device characteristics and output current, as well as temperature, which makes the compensation less effective, especially at low output current, low frequency, and zero current crossing. Several switching strategies for PWM power converters have been proposed to minimize the dead-time effect. A dead-time minimization algorithm was also discussed earlier to improve the inverter output performance. A phase-leg configu­ration topology proposed prevented shoot through. However, an additional diode in series in the phase-leg increases complexity and causes more loss in the inverter. Also, this phase-leg configuration is not suitable for high-power inverters because the upper device gate turn-off voltage is reversely clamped by a diode turn on voltage. Such a low voltage, usually less than 2 V, is not enough to ensure that a device is in its off-state during the activation of its complement device.

Friday, 11 May 2012

Protection of Low-Voltage DC Micro-grids

LV dc microgrid is used to interconnect distributed resources and sensitive electronic loads. To ensure reliable operation of the LV dc microgrid, it is important to have a well-functioning protection system. When designing an LV dc microgrid protection system, knowledge from existing dc power systems can be used. However, in most cases, these systems use grid-connected rectifiers with current-limiting capability during dc faults. In contrast, an LV dc microgrid must be connected to an ac grid through converters with bidirectional power flow and, therefore, a different protection-system design is needed. In this paper, the operating principles and technical data of LV dc protection are presented. Furthermore, different fault-detection and grounding methods are discussed. The influence of the selected protection devices and grounding method on an LV dc microgrid is studied through simulations. The results show that it is possible to use available devices to protect such a system.

Sunday, 6 May 2012

Gas Leak Detection


The aim of the project is to develop a gas leak detection and location system for the production safety in Petrochemical Industry.


The purpose of the project is to monitor gas leakage parameter. When they exceeds threshold, intimation is given to the nearby control section including readings of parameter and location of the gas leakage.


The system is based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) it can collect the data of monitoring sites wirelessly and sent to the computer to update values and the location also. Consequently, it can give a real time detective of the potential risk area, collect the data of a leak accident and locate the leakage point. However the former systems cannot react in time even cannot obtain data from an accident and locate accurately.

The paper has three parts, first, gives the overall system design, and then provides the approaches on both hardware and software to achieve it. The gas leak detection and location system consists of three parts: control center and terminal nodes.

Here the supervising control center is based on arm controller, it displays the location and the status messages of parameters of all the monitoring sites, and it is a graphical description of the geographical information of the entire potential risk area. Status, sensor data and location data, and then sent them to the control center to update value in the location software


Zigbee is new wireless technology guided by IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard. It is primarily designed for the wide range controlling applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. It currently operates in 868 MHz band at a data rate of 20Kbps in Europe, 914MHz band at 40kbps in USA, and the 2.4GHz ISM bands Worldwide at a maximum data-rate of 250kbps. It is used to verify whether user's truncation is possible or not. One of the main advantages of this ZIGBEE communication is that it provides a noise free communication, the amount of noise added in this type of communication is very less compared to the other wireless communications


Hence a gas leak detection and location system for the production safety in Petrochemical Industry was designed

Attendance Management Using Face Recognition System

The aim of this project is to deal with the problem of face detection in color images. Unlike in face recognition, where the classes to be discriminated are different faces in face detection, the two respective classes are the “Face area” and the “Non face area”. The novel approach to face detection is presented, binarisation rules especially designed for a skin area detection within a image frame.

The process involves Binarisation, localization, training and identification of Human Face.

This project easily extract the human face from any other images. Image segmentation algorithm is used to identify the face from other images.

After recognizing the face, the PC puts the attendance for the particular user. Also it sends signal to the microcontroller through serial port. The microcontroller analyses the signal and operates the door motor through driver section. The microcontroller program is written in assembly language. The microcontroller used is PIC 16F73

In this project, the camera is replaced by CD drive. The face is stored in the CD. As soon as the particular CD is inserted, the software in the PC recognizes the face and sends signal to the microcontroller through serial port. The PC recognizes the face and checks the data with the existing data. If it matches with any data, it puts attendance for the particular user. Also it sends signal to the microcontroller

The microcontroller used in this circuit is PIC16F73. It is a 28 pin IC with three I/O ports. It has inbuilt ADC. According to the signal received from the camera, the values are stored in the RAM of the microcontroller. Accordingly the microcontroller controls the door motor through driver section and relay. The microcontroller program is written in assembly language. The assembly language program is compiled to form “hex” code. The “hex” code is written in the microcontroller using PIC write software with the help of PIC writer.

Bluetooth Energy Meter


The word automation brings to mind devices that operate with minimal human intervention. In other words, acting or operating in a manner essentially independent of external influence or control. It finds application in controlling industrial equipments, home appliances, computer peripherals and robots. Bluetooth is a promising new wireless technology, which enables portable devices to form short-range wireless ad hoc networks and is based on a frequency hopping physical layer. Bluetooth is a frequency hopping system, which defines multiple channels for communication (each channel defined by a different frequency hopping sequence). A group of devices sharing a common channel is called a piconet. Each piconet has a master unit, which selects a frequency hopping sequence for the piconet and controls the access to the channel. Other participants of the group known as slave units are synchronized to the hopping sequence of the piconet master

Home and office automation using Bluetooth enabled devices have generated sufficient interest in the networking community. Bluetooth based automation offers flexibility, even when the devices actually present far from the master unit. The commands for the automation unit are given through the software module in PC. From PC the command is given to Bluetooth USB adapter. The Bluetooth USB adapter enables the Bluetooth communication and converts the data into airborne signals. The Bluetooth transceiver has a built-in antenna receives the air borne signals and transfer the data to the embedded controller through serial port. The Bluetooth transceivers can be operated in point-to-point, point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-multipoint architectures.

The embedded microcontroller is programmed to read the data. The embedded controller is the CPU that decides the operation of the automation unit. The embedded controller used here is 89C51 microcontroller. It is a derivative of 8051 microcontroller whose architecture and instruction set are same as 8051 microcontroller with some additional functionality. Since the controller has the inbuilt peripherals it is called as embedded controller. The embedded controller controls the automation unit as per the commands. Bluetooth based systems are developed to manage proper safeguards to prevent unauthorized leakage of information. Synchronizing data between cell phones, laptops, and PDAs; using cell phones as cordless phones when at home; and connecting PDAs to the office LAN are some of the cumbersome things that are possible with Bluetooth

Design of a Wireless Medical Monitoring System

Design of a Wireless Medical Monitoring System


The main aim of this project is used Monitoring Terminal and it can detect the patient's real-time body temperature, heart rate and other physiological informations, and transmit them to the control center.


Now days the fast development and popularization of information processing and wireless data transmission technology, the research of wireless Medical Monitoring System has became a hot topic with the help of biomedical sensors. By utilizing the wireless technique to transmit information between medical sensor and monitoring control center, the free space of patients is enlarged, and the efficiency of the modern management of hospitals is improved


Now a day with the increase of biomedical sensor we are going into this process of detecting the patient's real-time body temperature, heart rate and other physiological information's .Coming to the main core of wireless medical monitoring system is the design of wireless monitoring terminal, and the development of system software. The monitoring terminal generally consists of three modules: the sensor module, the control module, and the wireless communication module. The sensor module is used for acquiring medical information from the outside, and then converts them to digital signals. The control module is often compared to the brain of monitoring terminal, which is in charge of coordinating the task of different modules, controlling the sensors, processing data, and executing communication protocols.

The wireless communication module mainly deals with the wireless transmission of information. Nowadays, there are various kinds of wireless communication protocols. But since the main task of a monitoring terminal is to realize the transmission of signals such as heart rate, body temperature, and calling signals the data traffic is not heavy. Moreover, because the monitoring terminal is worn on patients, which needs to be supplied by battery, it puts a high demand on the reducing of power dissipation of wireless transmission module. Having taken these comprehensive factors into consideration, this paper chooses the ZigBee technology as the wireless communication protocol. ZigBee technology is a shortrange, low-rate, low-power wireless communication technology


Zigbee is new wireless technology guided by IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard. It is primarily designed for the wide range controlling applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. It currently operates in 868 MHz band at a data rate of 20Kbps in Europe, 914MHz band at 40kbps in USA, and the 2.4GHz ISM bands Worldwide at a maximum data-rate of 250kbps. It is used to verify whether user's truncation is possible or not. One of the main advantages of this ZIGBEE communication is that it provides a noise free communication, the amount of noise added in this type of communication is very less compared to the other wireless communications

Hence, by implementing this project the monitoring terminal can precisely check the heart rate and body temperature of patients, and send them to coordinator and then surveillance center through wireless network.

Solar Based Electromagnetic Braking System

The objective of this project is to design the solar based Electromagnetic breaking system using Object sensor for Automobiles. This project is mainly used in Vehicles either two or four wheelers. In this project is used in real time we can avoid so many accidents.

Brief Methodology:

This project is designed by following blocks

• Microcontroller

• Solar panel with battery.

• Object sensor

• Driver circuit

• Relay

• Electromagnetic core

• Breaking system

The object sensor senses the object and gives corresponding signals. These electrical signals are very small mill voltage signal, so it is given to amplifier circuit. The amplifier circuit is constructed with operational amplifier which acts as power amplifier. Then the amplifier signal is given to signal conditioning unit which also constructed with operational amplifier. In this circuit operational amplifier act as comparator and generate the square pulse given to microcontroller. The microcontroller may be ATMEL/PIC/RENESAS/ARM microcontroller. It will work according to our object already we have programmed.

According to the object sensor value, the microcontroller activates the driver circuit as per mentioned in the program. The driver circuit is constructed with transistor which acts as switch to control the relay. The relay output is directly connected to the electromagnetic core which is attached in the breaking system.

Whenever we control the brake, at the time what happens in the system means one of the coil winding is placed around it. It generates the electromotive force and it's fitted with the suitable mechanical set. Likewise when we release the break the force generation will be stopped and the coil winding releases from the mechanical set.

Entire kit is controlled by only solar power. Solar panel consists of number of silicon cells, when sun light falls on this panel it generate the voltage signals then these voltage signals given to charging circuit. Depends on the panel board size the generated voltage amount is increased. In charging circuit the voltage signal from the board is gathered together and stored in the battery. The battery power is used to control the vehicle


  • Can use all type of vehicles
  • Low cost
  • Low power consumption

Body Motion Information Collection


This project is utilizes multiple- Knot network technology to gather multiple –point accelerations information's.


This paper deals with the Numerous experiment data indicate it gather accurate information about human body which reflect the truthfully human body motions and this paper is process or transmit it to advanced comprehensively analyzed and this is widely used in such fields are health recovery training, physical exercises, computer games controlling. And here some mathematical calculations about the acceleration component information such as motional track and dynamic process will be gotten for this platform


Any human body motion, from its beginning to the end, the acceleration of every part of the mobile limbs or other parts of human body is keeping changing. If certain motion is repeated, then its acceleration changing regularity is also very also very close. Therefore if a three-axis acceleration sensor is put on some typical point of measured limbs or other body parts, then the three acceleration components X_Y_Z of that typical point in the motion process can be collected accurately.

Then by mathematical calculation about the acceleration components information such as the motional track and dynamic process about that point will be gotten.

From comprehensive analysis of the data gathered about several typical points detailed information about the measured human body motions is obtained so that motion information is digitalized.

This motion information collection platform uses multi-knot internet technology to

Collect the acceleration information of multiple typical points simultaneously, and process or transmit it to advanced computers to be comprehensively analyzed, thus this platform can be widely used in such fields as health recovery training, physical exercises, computer games controlling


Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices.

MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip . MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of micro sensors and micro actuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications


By this controller we get the information according to motion of the body.

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