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Friday, 26 November 2010

Plastic Memory

A conducting plastic has been used to create a new memory technology which has the potential to store a mega bit of data in a millimeter- square device-10 times denser than current magnetic memories. This device is cheap and fast, but cannot be rewritten, so would only be suitable for permanent storage.

The device sandwiches a blob of a conducting polymer called PEDOT and a silicon diode between perpendicular wires.The key to the new technology was discovered by passing high current through PEDOT (Polyethylenedioxythiophene) which turns it into an insulator, rather like blowing a fuse .The polymer has two possible states- conductor and insulator, that form the one and zero, necessary to store digital data.However tuning the polymer into an insulator involves a permanent chemical change, meaning the memory can only be written once.

A new form of permanent computer memory which uses plastic and is much cheaper and faster than the existing silicon circuits was invented by Researchers at Princeton University working with Hewlett-Packard.This new memory technology is created by using a conducting plastic which has the potential to store a megabit of data in a millimeter-square device - 10 times denser than current magnetic memories.

This utilizes a previously unknown property of a cheap, transparent plastic called PEDOT - short for polyethylenedioxythiophene. The inventors say that data densities as high as a megabit per square millimeter can be possible. By stacking layers of memory, a cubic centimeter device could hold as much as a gigabyte and be cheap enough to compete with CDs and DVD.

Humanoid robots used for surveillance

Today is a world of new scientific invention. As this paper includes the use of humanoid robots in the field of security. There is a wide range of use of robot like in restaurant, in spying; in medical .our main objective is to bring this humanoid robot in the field of surveillance. My paper will give immense use to the army personnel those who are survellancing in the remote areas of the India. Now question arises why only humanoid robots used for the surveillance purpose? Now for this answer take the example of Mumbai terror attack the terrorist have done the damage for 72 hrs.now the N.S.G doesn’t know how many terrorist are there in hotel Taj .for this reason the robots are designed in a such a way to counter such terror activities .
This paper presents some modification in the robot i.e. to use the metal detector, infrared cameras for sensing in the very dim light or no light .temperature detector for detecting the human inside the building. In my paper I have used 10 mega pixel camera 360 rotation to get the clear cut view of the inside building .so this will help the army personnel to counter strike with the terrorist. There will be fewer casualties to army as well as human being. My motive for bringing this paper to you that there is a great scope of enhancement in the field of robotics for the security inside the country. The robot will also carry insurgency operation in country for countering terrorism. Human-Robot has recently received considerable attention in the academic community, in labs, in technology companies, and through the media. Because of this attention, it is desirable to present a survey of HR to serve as a tutorial to people outside the field and to promote discussion of a unified vision of HR within the field.

Android

Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications. Android is a software platform and operating system for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. It allows developers to write managed code in a Java-like language that utilizes Google-developed Java libraries, but does not support programs developed in native code.
The unveiling of the Android platform on 5 November 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecom companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. When released in 2008, most of the Android platform will be made available under the Apache free-software and open-source license.

Phishing

In the field of computer security, phishing is the criminally fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Phishing is a fraudulent e-mail that attempts to get you to divulge personal data that can then be used for illegitimate purposes.

There are many variations on this scheme. It is possible to Phish for other information in additions to usernames and passwords such as credit card numbers, bank account numbers, social security numbers and mothers’ maiden names. Phishing presents direct risks through the use of stolen credentials and indirect risk to institutions that conduct business on line through erosion of customer confidence. The damage caused by phishing ranges from denial of access to e-mail to substantial financial loss.

This report also concerned with anti-phishing techniques. There are several different techniques to combat phishing, including legislation and technology created specifically to protect against phishing. No single technology will completely stop phishing. However a combination of good organization and practice, proper application of current technologies and improvements in security technology has the potential to drastically reduce the prevalence of phishing and the losses suffered from it. Anti-phishing software and computer programs are designed to prevent the occurrence of phishing and trespassing on confidential information. Anti-phishing software is designed to track websites and monitor activity; any suspicious behavior can be automatically reported and even reviewed as a report after a period of time.

This also includes detecting phishing attacks, how to prevent and avoid being scammed, how to react when you suspect or reveal a phishing attack and what you can do to help stop phishers.

Cryogenic Grinding

Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering herbs at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 0 to minus 70°F. The herbs are frozen with liquid nitrogen as they are being ground. This process does not damage or alter the chemical composition of the plant in any way. Normal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to 200°F. These high temperatures can reduce volatile components and heat-sensitive constituents in herbs. The cryogenic grinding process starts with air-dried herbs, rather than freeze-dried herbs.

Solid materials are ground or pulverized by way of hammer mills, attrition mills, granulators or other equipment. A smaller particle size is usually needed to enhance the further processing of the solid, as in mixing with other materials. A finer particle also helps in melting of rubber and plastics for molding. However, many materials are either very soft or very tough at room temperatures. By cooling to cryogenic temperatures with liquid nitrogen, these may be embrittled and easily fractured into small particles.

A scientifically controlled study using four herbs was conducted at Frontier Herbs in the Fall of 1996, comparing cryogenic grinding methods with normal grinding methods. The herbs tested included feverfew, goldenseal, valerian and echinacea. In all cases the cryogenically ground herb contained greater amounts of the constituents tested. Feverfew herb showed the greatest difference, with the cryogenically ground herb containing 21.8% higher levels of parthenolide, the primary active constituent. Valerian root showed an 18.7% increase in valerenic acid when cryogenically ground. Goldenseal root showed a 16.4% increase in berberine and 10.7% increase in hydrastine. Lastly, Echinacea purpurea root showed a 12.1% increase in total phenolic content in the cryogenically ground root. Test results were obtained by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) methods.

Cryogenic grinding was shown to significantly affect active constituent levels in herbs. Test results showed an average increase of 15.6% in constituents tested in four medicinal herbs when they were ground cryogenically. The range was 10.7% to 21.8%, indicating that some herbs are affected more than others by the temperatures at which they're ground.

Light Emitting Polymer

The seminar is about polymers that can emit light when a voltage is applied to it. The structure comprises of a thin film of semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two electrodes (cathode and anode).When electrons and holes are injected from the electrodes, the recombination of these charge carriers takes place, which leads to emission of light .The band gap, ie. The energy difference between valence band and conduction band determines the wavelength (colour) of the emitted light.

They are usually made by ink jet printing process. In this method red green and blue polymer solutions are jetted into well defined areas on the substrate. This is because, PLEDs are soluble in common organic solvents like toluene and xylene .The film thickness uniformity is obtained by multi-passing (slow) is by heads with drive per nozzle technology .The pixels are controlled by using active or passive matrix.

It is a polymer that emits light when a voltage is applied to it. The structure comprises a thin-film of semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two electrodes (anode and cathode) as shown in fig.1. When electrons and holes are injected from the electrodes, the recombination of these charge carriers takes place, which leads to emission of light that escapes through glass substrate. The bandgap, i.e. energy difference between valence band and conduction band of the semiconducting polymer determines the wavelength (colour) of the emitted light.

The advantages include low cost, small size, no viewing angle restrictions, low power requirement, biodegradability etc. They are poised to replace LCDs used in laptops and CRTs used in desktop computers today.
Their future applications include flexible displays which can be folded, wearable displays with interactive features, camouflage etc.

Lightning Protection using LFA-M

Outages of overhead power lines due to lightning strokes are one of the main causes of shortages of electric supplies and economic losses of power utilities. A previous study has concluded that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. In order to prevent arc fusion of insulated conductors on distribution lines due to lightning flashovers it is recommended to install an arrester at every insulator. Millions of metal - oxide arresters are already installed in Japan and more will be installed in the future. The main problem of using pole-top arresters is their high cost. For mass application of arresters for 1ightning protection of overhead distribution lines, an arrester must be cheap, reliable with no need for maintenance. The method suggested in this paper for the protection of distribution lines is a simplified discharge circuit. It consists of a long surface flashover discharge element, called Long Flashover Arrester (LFA), with a length greater than that of the insulator which it protects. The LFA can be connected between the conductor and ground or in series with the insulator. It is inexpensive (its construction is simple) and reliable because lightning discharge develops along the LFA and no Power Arc Follow (PAF) occurs.

Comparison of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices for Recharging Batteries

Piezoelectric materials can be used as a means of transforming ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent surge of micro scale devices, piezoelectric power generation can provide a convenient alternative to traditional power sources used to operate certain types of sensors/actuators, telemetry, and MEMS devices. However, the energy produced by these materials is in many cases far too small to directly power an electrical device. Therefore, much of the research into power harvesting has focused on methods of accumulating the energy until a sufficient amount is present, allowing the intended electronics to be powered. In a recent study by Sodano et al. (2004a) the ability to take the energy generated through the vibration of a piezoelectric material was shown to be capable of recharging a discharged nickel metal hydride battery. In the present study, three types of piezoelectric devices will be investigated and experimentally tested to determine each of their abilities to transform ambient vibration into electrical energy and their capability to recharge a discharged battery. The three types of piezoelectric devices tested are; the commonly used monolithic piezoceramic material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT), the bimorph Quick Pack (QP) actuator and Macro Fiber Composite (MFC). The experimental results estimate the efficiency of the three devices tested and identify the feasibility of their use in real world applications. Various different capacity batteries are recharged using each device, to determine the charge time and maximum capacity battery that can be charged. The results presented in this paper show the potential of piezoelectric materials for use in power harvesting applications, provide a means of choosing the piezoelectric device to be used and estimating the amount of time required for it to recharge a specific capacity battery.

DSTATCOM - Distribution SATATic COMpensator

Shunt Connected Controllers at distribution and transmission levels usually fall under two catogories - Static Synchronous Generators (SSG) and Static VAr Compensators (SVC).

A Static Synchronous Generator (SSG) is defined by IEEE as a self-commutated switching power converter supplied from from an appropriate electric energy source and operated to produce a set of adjustable multiphase voltages , which may be coupled to an ac power system for the purpose of exchanging independently controllable real and reactive power. When the active energy source (usually battery bank, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage etc) is dispensed with and replaced by a DC Capacitor which can not absorb or deliver real power except for short durations the SVG becomes a Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) . STATCOM has no long term energy support in the DC Side and can not exchange real power with the ac system ; however it can exchange reactive power. Also , in principle, it can exchange harmonic power too. But when a STATCOM is designed to handle reactive power and harmonic currents together it gets a new name – Shunt Active Power Filter. So a STATCOM handles only fundamental reactive power exchange with the ac system.

STATCOMs are employed at distribution and transmission levels – though for different purposes. When a STATCOM is employed at the distribution level or at the load end for power factor improvement and voltage regulation alone it is called DSTATCOM. When it is used to do harmonic filtering in addition or exclusively it is called Active Power Filter. In the transmission system STATCOMs handle only fundamental reactive power and provide voltage support to buses. In addition STATCOMs in transmission system are also used to modulate bus voltages duting transient and dynamic disturbances in order to improve transient stability margins and to damp dynamic oscillations.

IEEE defines the second kind of Shunt Connected Controller called Static VAr Compensator (SVC) as a shunt connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific parameters of the electrical power system (typically bus voltage).Thyristor-switched or thyristor-controlled capacitors/inductors and combinations of such equipment with fixed capacitors and inductors come under this.This has been covered in an earlier lecture and this lecture focusses on STACOMs at distribution and transmission levels.

PWM Voltage Source Inverter based Static VAr Compensators (referred to as SVC here onwards) began to be considered a viable alternative to the existing passive shunt compensators and Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR ) based compensators from mid-eighties onwards. The disadvantages of capacitor/inductor compensation are well known. TCRs could overcome many of the disadvantages of passive compensators. However they suffered from two major disadvantages ;namely slow response to a VAr command and injection of considerable amount of harmonic currents into the power system which had to be cancelled by special transformers and filtered by heavy passive filters.

Stream Processor: Programmability with efficiency

For many signal processing applications programmability and efficiency is desired. With current technology either programmability or efficiency is achievable, not both.
Conventionally ASIC's are being used where highly efficient systems are desired. The problem with ASIC is that once programmed it cannot be enhanced or changed, we have to get a
new ASIC for each modification. Other option is microprocessor based or dsp based applications. These can provide either programmability or efficiency. Now with stream processors we can achieve both simultaneously. A comparison of efficiency and programmability of Stream processors and other techniques are done. We will look into how efficiency and programmability is achieved in a stream processor. Also we will examine the
challenges faced by stream processor architecture.

The complex modern signal and image processing applications requires hundreds of GOPS (giga, or billions, of operations per second) with a power budget of a few watts, an efficiency of
about 100 GOPS/W (GOPS per watt), or 10 pJ/op (Pico Joules per operation). To meet this requirement current media processing applications use ASICs that are tailor made for a
particular application. Such processors require significant design efforts and are difficult to change when a new media processing application or algorithm evolve. The other alternative to meet the changing needs is to go for a dsp or microprocessor, which are highly flexible. But these do not provide the high efficiency needed by the application. Stream processors provide a solution to this problem by giving efficiency and programmability simultaneously. They achieve this by expressing the signal processing problems as signal flow graphs with streams flowing
between computational kernels. Stream processors have efficiency comparable to ASICs (200 GOPS/W), while being programmable in a high-level language. We will discuss how stream processor is achieves programmability and efficiency at the same time. Also we will look at the tools available for design of stream processing applications and challenges faced in this
approach to media processing.

Flying Windmills or Flying Electric Generator (FEG) technology

High Altitude Wind Power uses flying electric generator (FEG) technology in the form of what have been more popularly called flying windmills, is a proposed renewable energy project over rural or low-populated areas, to produce around 12,000 MW of electricity with only 600 well clustered rotorcraft kites that use only simple autogyro physics to generate far more kinetic energy than a nuclear plant can.According to Sky WindPower; the overuse of fossil fuels and the overabundance of radioactive waste from nuclear energy plants is taking our planet once again down a path of destruction, for something that is more expensive and far more dangerous in the long run. FEG technology is just cheaper, cleaner and can provide more energy than those environmentally unhealthy methods of the past, making it a desirable substitute/alternative.
The secret to functioning High Altitude Wind Power is efficient tether technology that reaches 15,000 feet in the air, far higher than birds will fly, but creating restricted airspace for planes and other aircraft.

The same materials used in the tethers that hold these balloons in place can also hold flying windmills in place; and with energy cable technology getting ever lighter and stronger .Flying windmills appear to be 90 percent more energy efficient in wind tunnel tests than their land-based counterparts; that is three times more efficiency due to simple yet constantly abundant and effective high altitude wind power, available only 15,000 feet in the air by way of clustered rotor craft kites tethered with existing anti-terrorist technologies like those used on the Mexican/American border radar balloons.
High Altitude Wind Power offers itself as a clean and more powerful source of power generation than anything available on-the-grid at present and if Sky WindPower Corp. has their way, FEG technology and flying windmills will take the lead of a more sustainable future within the decade.

Powerline Communication

Connecting to the Internet is a fact of life for business, government, and most households. The lure of e-commerce, video on demand, and e-mail has brought 60 million people to the Internet. Once they get to the Internet, they find out what it’s really like. That includes long waits for popular sites, substantial waits for secure sites, and horrible video quality over the web.

Telephone companies have offered high bandwidth lines for many years. For the most part, the cost of these lines and the equipment needed to access them has limited their usefulness to large businesses. The lone exception has been ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) which has won over some residential customers. ISDN offers fast Internet access (128k) at a relatively low cost.

Here the solution is Powerline communications (or PLC). Powerline communications is a rapidly evolving market that utilizes electricity power lines for the high-speed transmission of data and voice services.

None of the available Internet access services offer the right balance of cost, convenience, and speed. Digital Powerline technology could change all that. It gives customers high speed Internet access through electrical networks. Lower costs are achieved because the service is implemented on standard electrical lines. The service is also convenient because it’s already in your home. Internet access through Digital Powerline would be at (at least) 1Mbps, 20 times faster than a standard phone/modem connection.

Contactless Energy Transfer to a Moving Actuator

Most high-precision machines are positioning stages with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), which often consist of cascaded long- and short-stroke linear actuators that
are supported by mechanical or air bearings. Usually, the long stroke actuator has a micrometer accuracy, while the submicron accuracy is achieved by the short-stroke actuator. To build a high-precision machine, as much disturbances as possible should be eliminated. Common sources of disturbances are vibrations, Coulomb and viscous friction in bearings, crosstalk of multiple cascaded actuators and cable slabs.A possibility to increase throughput, while maintaining accuracy is to use parallel processing, i.e. movement and positioning in parallel with inspection, calibration, assembling, scanning, etc. To meet the design requirements of high accuracy while improving performance, a new design approach is necessary, especially if vacuum operation is considered, which will be required for the next generation of lithography
machines. A lot of disturbance sources can be eliminated by integrating the cascaded long- and short-stroke actuator into one actuator system.

Since most long-stroke movements are in a plane, this can be done by a contactless planar actuator. A contactless planar actuator or planar motor is supported by magnetic bearings that levitate the actuator platform, while controlling all six DOF of the platform. Long-stroke linear
movement in 2D is also provided by the magnetic bearing while small translations in height and small rotations remain possible. Magnetic bearings can also operate in vacuum. Parallel processing requires power on the platform to drive the actuators on the platform. In order to remove as much disturbances as possible, the power transfer needs to be contactless, i.e. without wires from the ground to the platform. A coil topology and geometry for a contactless
energy transfer system is proposed for energy transfer to a planar moving platform. The platform is equipped with permanent magnets and is levitated and propelled by a matrix of coils, which are fixed to the ground. Such a planar actuator is currently under investigation at Eindhoven University of Technology. The aim of this research project is to transfer energy to the moving platform continuously and at every position in order to enhance the functionality of the platform, while maintaining the advantages of operating without contact and cables slabs

ADVANCED ELECTRIC GENERATOR & CONTROL FOR HIGH SPEED MICRO/MINI TURBINE BASED POWER SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION

High-speed micro-turbines and mini-turbines play a significant role in the Distributed
Power Systems that provide dependable electric power close to the user. Several high-speed
turbo-generators manufactured by various corporations are now available in the 30 kW to 90 kW
range. These systems operate at speeds from 50000 RPM to 120000 RPM. The generator is
directly coupled to the turbine shaft. This obviates the need for a gearbox, helps reduce the size
of the generator, and lowers the cost of the overall system. The output power is electronically
processed and conditioned to provide constant voltage dc or multi-phase ac power at constant
frequency.
Technology of micro-turbines is moving forward to address ratings above 100 kW due to
the growing demand for larger units. There is a tendency to use multiple units of the existing 30
to 90 kW packages to satisfy this demand for higher power capacity. However, use of turbogenerators
of higher ratings is likely to be beneficial to the user for the following reasons:
a) lower cost of investment per kW for purchase and installation
b) lower cost of maintenance because of reduced parts count
c) higher efficiency
d) safer operation.
At the present time most generators used with micro-turbines are based on permanent
magnet technology. It is the objective of this paper to compare alternatives to the PM generator
technology, and introduce induction generator technology as a more viable alternative in the
power range exceeding 100 kW. The approach in this paper is to present the concept in all its
dimensions including the issues of generator and controller design. The authors are currently
engaged in the development of the high-speed induction generator systems. Their experience in
the field of the technology forms the basis supporting the discussions in this paper.

Condition Based Maintenance of Underground Cable Systems


De-regulation of power market brings changes by creating an increase in competition among utilities. Minimizing the cost of maintenance and losses due to cable failures is a key to successful operation.

Simulations demonstrate the possibility of applying condition-based maintenance for the entire service period of a cable system if maintenance cost could be lowered to a certain level.

The aging of power cables begins long before the cable actually fails. Preventing incipient failures developing into failures can greatly reduce loses. There are several external phenomena indicating undergoing aging problems, including partial discharges, hot spots, mechanical cracks and changes of insulation dielectric properties.

Most sensors currently used are cumbersome to move, complicated to use, or destructive to cables. In the presented project, non destructive miniature sensors capable of determining the status of power cable systems are developed and integrated into a monitoring system, including a video sensor for visual inspection, an infrared thermal sensor for detection of hot spots, an acoustic sensor for identifying partial discharge activities, and a fringing electric sensor for determining the aging status of insulating material.

Mobile monitoring can greatly reduce the maintenance cost and supply more accurate status of local cables over traditional monitoring techniques. The application range of condition-based maintenance can be expanded greatly with the aid of mobile monitoring.

A novel autonomous robot is developed A graphical user interface on the host computer is developed to enable motion control, sensor control and signal processing. Presented work demonstrates the use of mobile monitoring system for underground power cable systems to be viable and economically efficient...

BROADBAND OVER POWERLINE (BPL)

The Technology Broadband over power line (BPL) is another high speed data service available to consumers. It uses medium and low voltage power lines to carry broadband data at speeds between 500 Kbps and 3 Mbps. At these data rates BPL is equivalent to and competes with cable and DSL. Access BPL and In-home BPL are both used to deliver data to the consumer over power lines. Access BPL is used to carry data over the medium voltage and low voltage power lines to the customer?s premises. Power companies also use Access BPL to monitor power grids. In-home BPL defines the technology that is used in side the customer premises to transport data. Many devices are available now that can network your home using the electrical wiring in your house.

Electronics seminar lists

Adaptive Multipath Detection(34)
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR).
Organic electronics
The Vanadium Redox Flow Battery System(35)
Cellular Digital Packet Data (Cdpd)
Solid State Lighting
Fibre Optic Communication~
Web based remote device monitoring
Quantum dots
Digital Imaging~
Military Radars
WiMax
Virtual Reality~
Multi threading microprocessors
Evolution Of Embedded System
Chameleon Chip~
Imbricate cryptology
Digital steganography
Cryptography~
Cellular technologies and security.
Eye gaze human ? computer interface.
Augmented reality.
Electronic Road Pricing System~
Cellular geolocation.
Digit recognition using neural network
Microelectronic Pills~
Ultra wide band technology.
Enhanced data rates for gsm evolution (edge).
Global Positioning System~
The mp3 standard.
Thermal infrared imaging technology
Extreme ultraviolet lithography*
Mesh Radio(36)
Turbo codes.
Jseg-a method for unsupervised segmentation of color texture regions in images and video.
MILLIPEDE(37)
Multiple description coding.
Robotic balancing..
Molecular Electronics(38)
Intelligent transport.
The making of quantum dots.
Packet Cable Network(39)
E-paper.
Fpga offloads dsp?s.
Imaging radar.
Personal Area Network(40)
Wireless power transmission.
Voice recognition based on artificial neural networks.
Remote Accessible Virtual Instrumentation Control Lab(41)
Digital transmission content protection (dtcp)
Artificial immune system.
RTOS ? VXWORKS(42)
Resilient packet ring (rpr).
High performance Computing.
e-governance.
Software Radio(43)
Packet Switching chips
Printable RFID circuits
Adaptive Multipath Detection(34)
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR).
Organic electronics
The Vanadium Redox Flow Battery System(35)
Cellular Digital Packet Data (Cdpd)
Solid State Lighting
Fibre Optic Communication~
Web based remote device monitoring
Quantum dots
Digital Imaging~
Military Radars
WiMax
Virtual Reality~
Multi threading microprocessors
Evolution Of Embedded System
Chameleon Chip~
Imbricate cryptology
Digital steganography
Cryptography~
Cellular technologies and security.
Eye gaze human ? computer interface.
Augmented reality.
Electronic Road Pricing System~
Cellular geolocation.
Digit recognition using neural network
Microelectronic Pills~
Ultra wide band technology.
Enhanced data rates for gsm evolution (edge).
Global Positioning System~
The mp3 standard.
Thermal infrared imaging technology
Extreme ultraviolet lithography*

X-INTERNET

The Web?s days are numbered. So what?s next?
The X-Internet, which boosts online user?s quality of experience and accelerates the number of connected devices. The once hottest technology ever evolved, 'Internet' is already being dubbed as 'dumb, boring and isolated' and the days of the World Wide Web are numbered. The web we know today will fade. It will be replaced by a new software paradigm. Some call it the X Internet; others The Semantic Web. The web we know is evolving. Gone will be the days of browser-based applications. The X-Internet will not be a new invention, but rather the evolution of today's Internet of static Web pages and cumbersome e-commerce mechanisms into a Net that relies on executable software code to deliver more interactive experiences.

As the Internet expands, two new waves of innovation comprising the X-Internet are already eclipsing the Web: an executable Net that greatly improves the online experience and an extended Net that connects the real world. An executable Net that supplants today's Web will move code to user PCs and cause devices to captivate consumers in ways static pages never could. The extended Internet is reshaping technology's role in business through Internet devices and applications which sense, analyze, and control data, therefore providing more real-time information than ever before about what is going on in the real world. The extended Internet will include the widespread adoption of real-world appliances, like air conditioners or car tires that communicate with owners or manufacturers via the Internet. X-Internet pushes connectivity past computers to other interactive devices, such as cell phones and televisions, and from there to a range of consumer products and applications.

Executable Internet applications use downloaded code like Java and XML to enhance the user experience with pop-up menus, pick lists, graphics and simple calculations. Unlike the existing Web wherein the browser pops up essentially static pages of information, the executable Internet will enable a conversation between two ?high IQ entities? on either side, with interactivity level rising to hitherto unforeseen levels as intelligent applications execute code on the user?s PC or other devices.

Tunable spiral inductors

Abstract
A tunable micro-electromechanical systems integrated inductor with a large-displacement electro-thermal actuator is discussed here. Based on a transformer configuration, the inductance of a spiral inductor is tuned by controlling the relative position of a magnetically coupled short-circuited loop. Theoretical studies are backed by a variety of fabricated and measured tunable inductors that show a 2 : 1 inductance tuning ratio over a wide frequency range of approximately 25 GHz. In addition, the maximum and minimum quality factors of the tunable inductor are measured to be 26 and 10 which is high compared to previous designs. They can considerably extend the tuning capabilities of critical reconfigurable circuits such as tunable impedance matching circuits, phase shifters voltage controlled oscillators, and low noise amplifiers.
Introduction

MEMS are miniaturized device / array of devices combining mechanical and electrical components fabricated using IC batch production techniques. RF MEMS components are used for RF & MW and millimeter wave circuits. They are small devices of feature size of micron order. Fabricated by nano and micro technology. RF micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have been a rapidly growing field within the MEMS industry. In particular, a wide range of RF MEMS switches, varactors, and high- inductors have been developed and demonstrated over the last two decades. However, few solutions have been presented for obtaining tunable (or variable) MEMS inductors.
The approaches reported in the literature today for realizing a tunable MEMS inductor include: 1) control of the magnetic-core-material properties by changing the core permeability or displacing the core material; 2) usage of MEMS switches to digitally control the winding; 3) control of the mutual inductance between the turns of the inductor itself; and 4) control of the mutual inductance between the primary inductor and a separate short-circuited inductor.
Each of the demonstrated techniques has serious shortcomings that have not allowed RF designers to utilized tunable inductors in their designs. Changing the core permeability and consumes has resulted in very low quality factors significant amount of dc power (15-300 mW). In addition, movement of the core material requires large and complex actuators. Switchable inductors are limited by the number of switches utilized. Few switches result in a limited set of available values, while many switches drastically drop the quality of the inductor and result in large and narrowband circuits. Controlling the mutual inductance between the turns of the inductor itself has shown very limited inductance variations ( 18%). The fourth technique relies on coupling the inductor to be tuned (primary inductor) to a short-circuited inductor (secondary inductor) and controlling their coupling coefficient. In [4], both the primary and secondary inductors are implemented as single-turn loops. An electrostatic actuator changes the position of the short-circuited loop. This design exhibits a tuning ratio of 1.54:1 and requires very high electrostatic actuation voltages (150 V) and many complex fabrication steps. Besides this tuning ratio, no other information (e.g., quality factor and bandwidth) is given in [4]. The reported results show high inductance tuning ratios of 2:1 and good quality factors of 15-21 for the entire tuning range. However, these are not integrated solutions because they rely on manual movement for reaching the required displacements. In addition, no information is provided in any of these papers on how the inductance and resistance of the short-circuited inductor affect the critical RF parameters of the tunable inductor. Consequently improved designs and implementation methodologies are needed for achieving simple structures with high and continuous tuning ranges, high quality factors, large bandwidth, and low occupied chip area.
Here, measured and theoretical results for an optimized tunable MEMS spiral inductor with an integrated large-displacement electro-thermal actuator are analyzed. The tunable MEMS inductor utilizes an integrated transformer configuration, which is composed of two magnetically coupled inductors. Tunability is achieved by varying the magnetic coupling coefficient (k) that is dominated by the distance between the two inductors. Results derived by a simple equivalent circuit, full-wave simulations, and measurements indicate that optimal RF performance requires minimized resistive losses on the secondary inductor.

Microwave Superconductivity

1. Introduction
Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials generally at very low temperatures, characterized by exactly zero electrical resistance and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field (the Meissner effect). It was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1911. Applying the principle of Superconductivity in microwave and millimeter-wave (mm-wave) regions, components with superior performance can be fabricated. Major problem during the earlier days was the that the cryogenic burden has been perceived as too great compared to the performance advantage that could be realized. There were very specialized applications, such as low-noise microwave and mm-wave mixers and detectors, for the highly demanding radio astronomy applications where the performance gained was worth the effort and complexity. With the discovery of high temperature superconductors like copper oxide, rapid progress was made in the field of microwave superconductivity.
This topic describes the properties of superconductivity that can be exploited in microwave and mm-wave technologies to yield components with appreciable performance enhancement over conventional systems. Superconducting signal transmission lines can yield low attenuation, zero-dispersion signal transmission behavior for signals with frequency components less than about one tenth the superconducting energy gap. No other known microwave device technology can provide a similar behavior. Superconductors have also been used to make high speed digital circuits, josephsons junction and RF and microwave filters for mobile phone base stations.

Tuesday, 16 November 2010

iee project topics

Hybrid Differential Evolution Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Reactive Power Optimization (IEEE) 2010
Multiband Hysteresis Modulation and Switching Characterization for Sliding-Mode-Controlled Cascaded Multilevel Inverter(IEEE) 2010
. A Novel Three-Phase to Five-Phase Transformation Using a Special Transformer Connection 2010
. Reliability Evaluation ofB ulk Power Systems Incorporating UPFC (IEEE) 2010
. A 28-Pulse AC-DC ConverterB ased SMPS for Telecom Power Supply (B ePress) 2010
. A Real Time Power System Harmonic Estimator considering Fundamental Frequency Variations (B ePress) 2010
. Feasibility Study on Application of Voltage Source Inductive Filtering Converter in HVDC-Light Systems (IEEE) 2010
. Comparative study of induction motor efficiency optimization control strategy for electric vehicle 2010
. A Single-Phase Voltage-Controlled Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System With Power Quality Conditioner Functionality (IEEE) 2009
. Transient stability control of TCSC (IEEE) 2009
. A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced With a Distribution Network (IEEE) 2009
. Reduced rating VSC with a Zig-Zig transformer for current compensation in three phase four wire distribution system (IEEE) 2009
. UPQC signal detection algorithm based on PSO-Fuzzy (IEEE) 2009
. Power quality improvement in conventional electronic load controller for isolated Power Generation (IEEE) 2009
. Model predictive control of Unified power quality conditioner with control saturation (IEEE) 2009
. A fast-acting dc-link voltage controller for 3 phase DStatcom to compensate ac and dc loads (IEEE) 2009
. PMSM speed sensor less direct torque control based on EKF (IEEE) 2009
. Investigation of Sub Synchronous Resonance With VSC-B ased HVDC Transmission Systems (IEEE) 2009
. Operation and control of single phase micro-sources in a utility connected grid (IEEE) 2009
. MultiConverter Unified Power-Quality Conditioning System: MC- UPQC (IEEE) 2009
. The use of facts devices in distributed power systems-modeling ,interface case study(IJCE) 2009
. Development of Hybrid Active Power FilterB ased on the Adaptive Fuzzy Dividing Frequency-Control Method (IEEE) 2009
. A modular fuel cell modular DC-DC converter concept for High performance and Enhanced reliability (IEEE) 2009
. New multivariable dynamic model & robust control of a Voltage Source Converter for power system application (IEEE) 2009
. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Power SystemsB ased on Renewable Energy (IEEE) 2009
. Double FrequencyB uck converter (IEEE) 2009
. Optimization of PI coefficients in DStatcom non linear controller for regulating dc voltage using Generic Algorithm (IEEE) 2009
. Optimal placement of shunt connected facts devices in a series compensated long transmission line (WCE) 2009
. Voltage flicker compensation using STATCOM (IEEE) 2009
. A variable speed, sensor less, induction motor using dc link measurement (IEEE) 2009
. Soft computing techniques for the control of an active power filter (IEEE) 2009
. Wide speed range estimation with parameter identification schemes of sensor less induction motors (IEEE) 2009
. Design and analysis of dynamic voltage restorer for deep voltage sag and harmonic compensation (IEEE) 2009
. Constant Power Control and Fault-Ride-Through Enhancement of DFIG Wind Turbines with Energy Storage (IEEE) 2009
. Modeling of FACTS DevicesB ased on SPWM VSCs (IEEE) 2009
. Design of a Modular UPQC Configuration Integrating a Components Economical Analysis (IEEE) 2009
. A New Proposal for Power Quality and Custom Power Improvement: OPEN UPQC (IEEE) 2009
. Space Vector Method for Voltage Dips and Swells Analysis (IEEE) 2009
. Analytical Modeling of a Square Wave Controlled Cascaded Multilevel STATCOM (IEEE) 2009
. Three-Phase Transformer Model Including Magnetic Hysteresis and Eddy Currents Effects (IEEE) 2009
. Output Feedback Control of Single-Phase UPQCB ased on a Novel Model (IEEE) 2009
. Harmonic Analysis and Improvement of a New Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (IEEE) 2009
.Multivariable Dynamic Model and Robust Control of a Voltage-Source Converter for Power System Applications (IEEE) 2009
. A Versatile Control Scheme for a Dynamic Voltage Restorer for 2009Power-Quality Improvement (IEEE)
. Study on a Novel Hybrid Active Power Filter Applied to a High- Voltage Grid (IEEE) 2009
. Seven-Level Shunt Active Power Filter for High-Power Drive Systems (IEEE) 2009
. Dynamic Voltage RestorerB ased on Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Operated by Repetitive Control (IEEE) 2009
. Sensor less Current Control of Three-Phase Inverter-B ased Distributed Generation (IEEE) 2009
. Optimum Space Vector Computation Technique for Direct Power Control (IEEE) 2009
. Wind Farms Modeling for Short-Circuit Level Calculations in Large Power Systems (IEEE) 2009

iee eee projects


  1. Improving mains current quality for three phase three-switch buck-type PWM rectifiers – 2009
  2. Analysis and Design of Three-Phase Rectifier with Near-Sinusoidal Input Currents - 2009
  3. Single-Phase Matrix Converter Operating as Buck and Boost Rectifier - 2009
  4. Single-Phase Z-Source Buck-Boost Matrix Converter - 2009
  5. A Single-Stage Single-Phase Transformer-Less Doubly Grounded Grid-Connected PV Interface - 2009
  6. Hybrid Modeling and Simulation for the Boost Converter in Photovoltaic System - 2009
  7. Design and Control for Grid-connected Photovoltaic Inverter with LCL Filter - 2009
  8. Quasi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems - 2009
  9. Power Injection System for Photovoltaic Generation Plants with Active Filtering Capability - 2009
  10. The Electronic Ballast Using Class-E Rectifier with Tapped Inductor for Power Factor Correction - 2008
  11. A Novel Reference Compensation Current Strategy for Three-phase Three-level Unity PF Rectifier - 2009
  12. Single-Stage Soft-Switching Converter With Boost Type of Active Clamp for Wide Input Voltage Ranges - 2009
  13. Transformer less DC–DC Converters With High Step-Up Voltage Gain used for photovoltaic interface Application - 2009
  14. A Zero-Voltage-Switching Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With State Analysis and Soft- Switching-Oriented Design Consideration - 2009
  15. Soft-Switching Capability Analysis of a Dual Active Bridge Dc-Dc Converter - 2009
  16. Comparison of Control Methods for High-Voltage High-Power Three-Level Half-Bridge DC/DC Converters - 2009
  17. Design of High Voltage, High Power and High Frequency Transformer in LCC Resonant Converter – 2009
  18. LCC Resonant Converter Operating under Discontinuous Resonant Current Mode in High Voltage, High Power and High Frequency Applications - 2009
  19. Design of LCL-T Resonant Converter Including the Effect of Transformer Winding Capacitance – 2009
  20. A Non-isolated Bidirectional ZVS-PWM Active Clamped DC–DC Converter - 2009
  21. Analysis and implementation of Single-Switch Quasi-Resonant Converter - 2009
  22. Loss Analysis in Soft Switching Boost Converter using a single switch - 2009
  23. A Novel Soft Switching Flyback Converter with Synchronous Rectification - 2009 Zero-Current-Transition Bridgeless PFC Without Extra Voltage and Current Stress - 2009
  24. An Efficient Common-Mode Hybrid EMI Filter Used in Switch-mode Power Supply - 2009
  25. Active-Clamp ZVS Converter with Step-Up Voltage Conversion Ratio - 2009 Passive and Active Hybrid Integrated EMI Filters - 2009
  26. Modeling and design of a neutral point regulator for a three level diode clamped rectifier - 2009
  27. A novel three-phase PFC rectifier using a harmonic current injection method - 2009
  28. Single-Stage Fly back Converter for Constant Current Output LED Driver with Power Factor Correction - 2009
  29. A Modified SEPIC Converter for High Power Factor Rectifier and Universal-Input Voltage Applications - 2009
  30. A Compensation Technique for Smooth Transitions in Non-inverting Buck-Boost Converter - 2009
  31. A Novel Hybrid Operational Mode Wide Range Input ZVS Front-end Dc-Dc Converter Aiming at Optimized Overall Performance - 2009
  32. A Novel Low-Loss Modulation Strategy for High-Power Bidirectional Buck + Boost Converters - 2009
  33. A Novel ZVZCS LLC-Type Parallel Resonant Converter with A Separated Resonant Tank - 2009
  34. An Interleaved Boost Converter With Zero-Voltage Transition - 2009
  35. Analysis and implementation of Switched-capacitorized DC/DC Converters - 2009
  36. Analysis of Super-Lift Luo-Converters with Capacitor Voltage drop - 2009
  37. Compensation Loop Design of A Photovoltaic System Based on Constant Voltage MPPT - 2009
  38. Design and Comparison of Two Front-end DC/DC Converters: LLC Resonant Converter and Soft-switched Phase-shifted Full-bridge Converter with Primary-side Energy Storage Inductor - 2009
  39. Design Oriented Analysis of Modern Active Droop Controlled Power Supplies - 2009
  40. Distributed Z-Source Network DC-DC Converter - 2009
  41. High-efficiency module-integrated photovoltaic power conditioning system - 2009
  42. Light-Load Efficiency Improvement for Buck Voltage Regulators - 2009
  43. Single-Stage Offline SEPIC Converter with Power Factor Correction to Drive High Brightness LEDs - 2009
  44. Single-Stage Single-Switch Switched-Capacitor Buck/Buck-Boost-Type Converter - 2009
  45. Stability analysis of two-cell buck converter driven DC motor with a Discrete-Time closed Loop - 2009
  46. Three-Switch Active-Clamp Forward Converter with Low Switch Voltage Stress - 2009
  47. Topology and analysis of Voltage-lift-type Cuk converters: - 2009
  48. CAN based Synchronized Motion Control for Induction Motors – 2009 Novel Nine-Switch PWM Rectifier-Inverter Topology for Three-Phase UPS Applications – 2009
  49. A Simple Control Scheme for Single-Phase Shunt Active Power with Fuzzy Logic based DC Bus Voltage Controller – 2009
  50. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation based Speed Control of Induction Motor using Fuzzy PI Controller – 2009
  51. Energy Efficient Control of Three-Phase Induction Motor – A Review – 2009
  52. Speed-Sensorless, Adjustable-Speed Induction Motor Drive based on Dc Link Measurement – 2009
  53. A Bridgeless PFC Boost Rectifier with Optimized Magnetic Utilization – 2009
  54. A Review of Non-Isolated High Step-Up DC/DC Converters in Renewable Energy Applications – 2009
  55. An Interleaved Twin-Buck Converter with Zero-Voltage-Transition - 2009
  56. Analysis and design of a current-fed zero-voltage-switching and zero-current-switching CL-resonant push–pull dc–dc converter - 2009
  57. Analysis and implementation of An Efficient ActiveL C Snubber for Forward Converters - 2009
  58. Analysis and implementation of positive output super lift converter techniques - 2009
  59. Digital Control of Resonant Converters: Enhancing Frequency Resolution by Dithering – 2009
  60. Semi-Digital Interleaved PFC Control with Optimized Light Load Efficiency – 2009
  61. Control and Protection of Power Electronics Interfaced Distributed Generation Systems in a Customer-Driven Microgrid – 2009
  62. Research on Measuring Equipment of Single-phase Electricity-Stealing with Long- distance Monitoring Function – 2009
  63. Development of Energy Management and Warning System for Resident: An Energy Saving Solution – 2009
  64. Sufficient Sunlight Supply for Home Care using Local Closed-loop Shutter Control System – 2009
  65. Home Appliance Energy Monitoring and Controlling based on Power Line Communication - 2009
  66. Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays - 2009
  67. A Novel Zero Voltage Transition Synchronous Buck Converter for Portable Application – 2008
  68. Detection and Recognition of End-of-Speed-Limit and Supplementary Signs for Improved European Speed Limit Support – 2008
  69. \Soft Switched AC-Link AC/AC and AC/DC Buck-Boost Converter – 2008
  70. Improving Speed Control of Induction Motors through Fuzzy-SMC-PI Control – 2008
  71. A Fuzzy Logic Controlled Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of Inverter in Shunt Active Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement – 2008
  72. Design of an Intelligent Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter with Half Bridge Topology – 2008
  73. Direct Torque Neuro Fuzzy Speed Control of an Induction Machine Drive based on a New Variable Gain PI Controller – 2008
  74. Embedded Controlled Z Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive – 2008
  75. Multi-Input Fuzzy Logic Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives – 2008
  76. Smart Configurable Wireless Sensors and Actuators for Industrial Monitoring and Control – 2008
  77. Design and Implementation of PLC-based Monitoring Control System for Three-Phase Induction Motors Fed by PWM Inverter – 2008
  78. A Distributed Measurement System to Estimate Plant Water Content in Agricultural Fields based on Wireless Sensor Networks – 2008
  79. Operational Analysis and Comparative Evaluation of Embedded Z-Source Inverters – 2008
  80. AI base Design of a Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Speed Control of Induction Motors using SVPWM Technique – IEEE 2009
  81. CAN-based Synchronized Motion Control for Induction Motors – IEEE 2009
  82. Fuzzy Multi-State Allocation of the Diesel Engine Fuel Supply System – IEEE 2009
  83. A Fuzzy Logic based Supervisory Hierarchical Control Scheme for Real Time Pressure Control – IEEE 2009
  84. A Fuzzy Logic Controlled Sliding Mode Control (SMC) of Inverter in Shunt Active Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement – IEEE 2008
  85. A Novel Zero Voltage Transition Synchronous Buck Converter for Portable Application – IEEE 2008
  86. Design of an Intelligent Bi-Directional Dc-Dc Converter with Half Bridge Topology – IEEE 2008
  87. Direct Torque Neuro Fuzzy Speed Control of an Induction Machine Drive based on a New Variable Gain PI Controller – IEEE 2008
  88. Embedded Controlled Z-Source Inverter Induction Motor Drive – IEEE 2008
  89. Improving Speed Control of Inductions through Fuzzy-SMC-PI Control – IEEE 2008
  90. Multi-Input Fuzzy Logic Controller for Brush less DC Motor Drives – IEEE 2008
  91. A New Simplified Multilevel Inverter Topology for DC-AC Conversion Boost DC-AC Inverter: A New Control Strategy Data Acquisition System for Large Electrical Drive Distribution & Electrical Substation System & Automation-SCADA Electrical Network Automation & Communication Systems Energy Saver for Auditoriums

IEEE EEE projects1

  • A Modular Single-Phase Power-Factor-Correction Scheme With a Harmonic Filtering Function - 2009
  • A new approach to improve power factor and reduce Harmonics in a three phase Diode Rectifiers that Apply Optimal current Injection - 2009
  • A Novel Unity Power Factor Input Stage for AC Drive Application A Soft-Switching Synchronous Buck Converter for Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) in Light and Full Load Conditions – 2008
  • A Three-Phase Reduced Switch High Power Factor Buck-Type Converter -2008 Active filter design and specification for control of harmonics in industrial and commercial facilities - 2009
  • Analysis and Design of a Three-Phase Reduced Switch Buck-Type Rectifier for power factor correction - 2009
  • Analysis and implementation of a zero voltage switching bi-forward converter -IEEE2008
  • Analysis and Implementation of Switched-Capacitor/Switched-Inductor Structures for Getting Transformer less Hybrid DC–DC PWM Converters – IEEE – 2008
  • Design and control methodology of Shunt Active Power Filter for Harmonic Mitigation – 2009
  • Designs and Analysis of Zero-Voltage-Switching DC–DC Converters with Synchronous Rectifiers - 2008
  • Dynamic Modeling and Control of a Zeta Converter - IEEE 2009
  • Harmonic distortion and reduction techniques of Non-linear loads employing PWM inverter based Active power filter - 2009
  • Modeling the PWM Zeta Converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode - IEEE 2009
  • Power Factor Correction and Active Filtering Technology Application for Industrial Power Systems with Non-linear Loads - 2009
  • System harmonic compensation using PWM voltage source Inverter based Shunt Active Power Filters - 2009
  • Three-Phase Rectifier With Active Current Injection and High Efficiency -IEEE 2009
  • Unity-Power-Factor Operation of AC–DC Soft Switched Converter Based On Boost Active Clamp Topology in Modular Approach - IEEE 2008
  • Zero voltage switching DC link single phase Pulse width modulated Voltage source Inverter- IEEE 2007
  • Applications of Short-Range Wireless Technologies to Industrial Automation: A Zigbee Approach – 2009
  • Modern Power Electronics and Motor Drives, Control, Electrical Projects - IEEE 2009
  • Power Quality and Harmonics filters ZVS and ZCS converters Improved power quality converters and inverters Power factor corrected AC-DC converters Switching mode converters Soft switching converters M u ltile v e l in v e rte rs S o la r p o w e r c o n v e rte rs Solar Power Generation using SPS and Wireless Power Transmission – 2009
  • A Fuzzy Logic based Supervisory Hierarchical Control Scheme for Real Time Pressure Control – 2009
  • AI based Design of a Fuzzy Logic Scheme for Speed Control of Induction Motors using SVPWM Technique – 2009
  • A Zigbee and Zigbee-to-IR Device Control Scheme for Single Media Multi Devices – 2009
  • Global and Local Chassis Control based on Load Sensing – 2009
  • New Power Quality Solutions Especially Designed for Industrial Applications – 2009 Sensor Networks for Industrial Applications – 2009
  • Fuzzy Logic based Control of Variable Speed Induction Machine Wind Generation System –2009
  • Direct Yaw Moment Control of an In-Wheel-Motored Electric Vehicle based on Body Slip Angle Fuzzy Observer – 2009
  • Fuzzy Multi-State Allocation of the Diesel Engine Fuel Supply System – 2009
  • Design and Development of ARM Processor based Web Server – 2009
  • A Study of New Techniques of Controlled PWM Inverters – 2009
  • Robust Control of DC Motor using Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control with PID Compensator – 2009
  • Novel Half-Bridge Inductive DC–DC Isolated Converters for Fuel Cell Applications - 2009
  • Analysis and implementation of an Improved Soft-switched Synchronous Buck Converter – 2009
  • High step-up resonant push–pull converter with high efficiency – 2009
  • Photovoltaic-Battery-Powered DC Bus System for Common Portable Electronic Devices – 2009
  • Present States and Development of the Single-stage Uninterruptible AC-DC Converters – 2009
  • A Hybrid PWM Resonant Converter Suitable for Wide Input Variation – 2009
  • Family of Soft-Switching PWM Converters With Current Sharing in Switches – 2009
  • Design, study, modeling and control of a new single-phase high power factor rectifier based on the single-ended primary inductance converter and the Sheppard–Taylor topology – 2009
  • Implementation of a Zero Voltage Switching Sepic-Cuk Converter – 2009
  • Sensor less Control of SEPIC and Ćuk Converters for DC Motors using solar Panels – 2009
  • Bridgeless SEPIC Rectifier With Unity Power Factor and Reduced conduction Losses – 2009
  • A Modified SEPIC Converter with Soft-Switching Feature for Power Factor Correction – 2009
  • A Novel Zero-Voltage-Switching Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Electronic Ballast. – 2009
  • A Three-in-One Converter for Regular and Emergency Lighting applications – 2009
  • A Design Methodology for a Self-Oscillating Electronic Ballast – 2009
  • A Novel Power Management Control Strategy for Stand-alone Photovoltaic Power System – 2009
  • Analysis and implementation of Z source based Single Stage Solar Cell Converter for power supply applications - 2009
  • Analysis and implementation of Vienna Rectifiers in Distribution Power System – 2009
  • ZVS Resonant DC-link Inverter using Soft Switching Boost Converter – 2009
  • Improved Z-Source Inverter With Reduced Z-Source Capacitor Voltage Stress and Soft- Start Capability – 2009
  • A novel DC-AC Single Phase Resonant Inverter using soft switching boost converter – 2009
  • A Novel Approach to Reduce Line Harmonic Current for a Three-phase Diode Rectifier-fed Electrolytic Capacitor-less Inverter – 2009
  • Analysis and Implementation of a Hybrid High-Power-Factor Three-Phase Unidirectional Rectifier – 2009
  • Application of Random PWM Techniques for Reducing the Electromagnetic Interference of Vienna Rectifiers in Distribution Power System – 2009

IEEE Networking Projects

RESEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF STOP-AND-WAIT ARQ FOR PARALLEL MULTICHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS:--DOTNET--2009

RESEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF STOP-AND-WAIT ARQ FOR PARALLEL MULTICHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS:--DOTNET--2009

ANALYSIS OF SHORTEST PATH ROUTING FOR LARGE MULTI-HOP WIRELESS NETWORKS:--DOTNET--2009

SECURE AND POLICY-COMPLIANT SOURCE ROUTING:--DOTNET--2009

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR MOBILE IP NETWORKS: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON AND USE RECOMMENDATIONS:--JAVA--2009

MULTIPLE ROUTING CONFIGURATIONS FOR FAST IP NETWORK RECOVERY:--JAVA--2009

VIRUS SPREAD IN NETWORKS:--DOTNET--2009

MINING FILE DOWNLOADING TIME IN STOCHASTIC PEER TO PEER NETWORKS:--DOTNET--2008

RATE & DELAY GUARANTEES PROVIDED BY CLOSE PACKET SWITCHES WITH LOAD BALANCING:--JAVA--2008
GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO IMPROVING ACTIVE PACKET LOSS MEASUREMENT:--JAVA--2008

PERFORMANCE OF A SPECULATIVE TRANSMISSION SCHEME FOR SCHEDULING LATENCY REDUCTION:--JAVA-2008

RATE ALLOCATION & NETWORK LIFETIME PROBLEM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS:--DOTNET--2008

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TRAFFIC ANOMALIES THROUGH PACKET HEADER DATA:--DOTNET--2008

EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE:--DOTNET--2008

TWO TECHNIQUES FOR FAST COMPUTATION OF CONSTRAINED SHORTEST PATHS:--JAVA--2008

PROBABILISTIC PACKET MARKING FOR LARGE-SCALE IP TRACE BACK:--DOTNET

DUAL-LINK FAILURE RESILIENCY THROUGH BACKUP LINK MUTUAL EXCLUSION:--JAVA

A DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE FOR GLOBAL ROAMING IN NEXT-GENERATION MOBILE NETWORKS:--JAVA--2004

NETWORK BORDER PATROL: PREVENTING CONGESTION COLLAPSE AND PROMOTING FAIRNESS IN THE INTERNET:--JAVA--2004

Monday, 15 November 2010

Electrical engineering project topics for final year

1. Transformer protection panel
2. Working Model of maglev
3. Maximum power point Tracking
4. Motorised wheel Chair
5. Controller of Electrical Vehicale
6. Deregulation of Energy Sector
7. Cathodic protection
8. Radial Feeder protection
9. PLC Based System
10. Numerical Relay
11. Measurement of electrical parameters
12. Variable Frequency Drive
13. 3 Phase Analayzer
14. Modeling and simulation of Congestion management in transmission sector of deregulated electricity market.
15. Electrical Bicycle
16. Survey of Industries in surat
17. Speed Control of D.C shunt motor using four Quadrant Chopper
18. Speed Control of Separately excited D.C motor using µP
19. Cyclo- converter 1- Phase to 1- Phase
20. Digital Filter Design & it’s Application
21. Computer Aided Power Flow Analysis
22. Microstepping of Unipolar Stepper Motor
23. Speed control of 3 - Phase Induction Motor by V / F method using PWM Technique
24. Measurement of inrush current in Transformer
25. Microprocessor based power factor measurement & control
26. 8085 based Protective Relay
27. Microcontroller based Digital Energy Meter
28. Electronic Power Generator using Transistor
29. Measurement of inrush current in Transformer
30. Microstepping of Unipolar Stepper Motor
31. Computer Aided Power Flow Analysis
32. Speed Control of D.C shunt motor using four Quadrant Chopper
33. Microprocessor based power factor measurement & control
34. Cycloconverter 1- Phase to 1- Phase
35. 8085 based Protective Relay
36. Speed Control of Separately excited D.C motor using µP
37. Microcontroller based Digital Energy Meter
38. Speed control of 3 - Phase Induction Motor by V / F method using PWM Technique
39. Digital Filter Design & it’s Application
40. Electrical Bicycle
41. Survey of Industries in surat
42. Electronic Power Generator using Transistor
43. Solar Tracking System
44. Working Model of Solar Power Plant
45. Speed Control of D.C Motor using D.C Drives
46. Prepaid Card Energy Meter
47. Vector Controlled AC Drive
48. Reciprocating Motora. / C Relay
49. Construction & Design of Three phase 1 H.P Motor
50. Micro-controller based differential protection of Transformer
51. Design Optimization of Three phase squirrel cage Induction Motor
52. Speed Control of D.C Motor using Simulation
53. Micro-controller based Control of any electrical Machine
54. Inverter (MOSFET based)
55. V / F Speed Control of Three Phase Induction Motor
56. Linear Induction Motor (Design & Performance, Analysis)
57. PLC Based Boiler Control System
58. Microprocessor based Robot
59. Power Factor correction using Microprocessor
60. 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor design
61. 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor design
62. Speed control of dc shunt motor
63. Protection of 3 phase induction motor
64. Speed control of universal motor using microcontroller
65. Computer Aided Design Of Transformer
66. Microprocessor based Power Meter
67. Microprocessor based Speed Control of Induction Motor
68. Data Acquisition System
69. UPS
70. GSM CONTROLLED DOOR LATCH OPENER WITH SECURITY DIALUP WITH CHANGEABLE TELEPHONE NUMBERS (BASED)
71. POWER GRID CONTROL THROUGH PC
72. i.V.R.S. SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL CONTROL
73. RF CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTORS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL
74. LOADS
75. Microcontroller Based G.S.M. controlled Switch With Voice
76. Six Channel Petrochemical Fire Monitoring & Control Station
77. Based Token Number Display With Voice & Security
78. Home/Office Security System (Teleguard)
79. IBM PC HDD,FDD,PRINTER SIGNAL INDICATOR AND FAULT LOCATOR CARDS(SET OF THREE CARDS)
80. MINI LCD SCOPE
81. ELECTRONIC EYE BASED
82. ELECTRONIC EYE BASED WITH EVENT LOGGING ON PC
83. Hotel Power Management Through PC
84. µc Based PT- Temperature Controller
85. Microcontroller Based Code Lock With Security Telephone Dialer
86. REAL TIME CHANNEL DATA LOGGER
87. CH DATA LOGGER THROUGH RADIO LINK
88. Load Shedder
89. Home automation Through P.C.
90. inductance , capacitance and frequency meter.
91. PC TO PC LASER COMMUNICATION
92. PC TO PC FIBER- OPTIC COMMUNICATION
93. BILGE OIL WATER SEPARATOR
94. AUTOMATIC TOLL TAX
95. AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF UNMANNED RAIL GATE
96. AUTO-ANSWERING WITH SECURITY DIAL-UP
97. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC)
98. heart beat monitor (BASED)
99. INTELLIGENT SAUNA BATH CONTROL SYSTEM
100. REMOTE MONITORING AND ALARM ON PC USING RADIO LINK
101. EIGHT CHANNEL DATA LOGGER CBASED
102. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MODERN HOUSE
103. PAIN MONITOR
104. PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM
105. R.F. CONTROLLED INTELLIGENT ROBOT CAR WITH CORDLESS VIDEO-CAM .SENDS VIDEO & SOUND ON MONITOR/TV CONTINUOUSLY. CAN BE USED FOR SPYING PURPOSE RANGE YARDS RADIAL . BASED ON MICROCONTROLLER
106. PWER HOUSE MONITORING THROUGH RADIO FREQUENCY
107. DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL USING RADIO FREQUENCY ()SUITABLE FOR ROBOTIC ARM (TWO ANGLE)
108. DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL FROM PC COM PORT()SUITABLE FOR ROBOTIC ARM (TWO ANGLE)
109. DC MOTOR SPEED CONTROL THROUGH PUSH SWITCHES()
110. TELEPHONE CALLS LOGGER ( LOGS ALL incoming and outgoing CALLS TO PC)
111. RFID TX AND RX KIT WITH TWO IDS ( SECURITY APPLICATION)
112. RFID TX AND RX KIT WITH TWO IDS ( ROUTE MAP APPLICATION)
113. RFID TX AND RX KIT WITH TWO IDS ( ATTENDANCE REGISTER)
114. HOME APPLIANCES CONTROL THROUGH PC
115. SAFE LANDING SYSTEM
116. BUILD YOUR OWN // PROGRAMMER
117. BUILD YOUR OWN EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT BOARD PC
118. REAL-TIME INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL AND MONITORING USING GSM PHONES
119. LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT
120. LIGHT FOLLOWER ROBOT
121. INFRA RED CONTROL FOR PC
122. DRIVER ALERT
123. CONTACT LESS TECHO GENERATOR
124. HEART BEAT MONITOR WITH WAVE ON LCD(PIC BASED)
125. IR FOLLOWER ROBOT
126. PARKING RADAR
127. MULTI CORE CABLE TESTER
128. KITCHEN TIMER
129. ROOM THERMOMETER
130. DIGITAL LOCK
131. PHOTIC PHONE
132. PIC LCF METER
133. RADIO FREQUENCY REMOTE CONTROL BOARD (CONTROL EIGHT RELAYS)
134. MICROCONTROLLER BASED SECURITY DIAL UP WITH EVENT LOGGING TO PC
135. HOME AUTOMATION USING GSM
136. GSM IVRS
137. AUTOMATIC TOLL TAX WITH VOICE USING
138. INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION & MONITORING SYSTEM

Saturday, 13 November 2010

Audio based Navigtor

Introduction

Navigation in the past has primarily relied on the use of a map, compass or other devices that must be interpreted visually. This project demonstrates the ability to navigate a user based on synthesized directional audio which allows the user to move to a known location without the use of a visual aid. The module uses a GPS, a digital compass, and an ATmega32 to generate sound based on the direction that the user must turn in order to face the correct direction.

Sound Byte

The goal of this project was to create a device that allows a user to navigate to a predefined location though the use of auditory guidance.

Summary

The module uses GPS and a digital compass to determine at what angle the user hears the sound pulses. On initial startup the user selects from a number of predefined locations through the use of an LCD screen. Once the GPS has a lock, the module determines the bearing (angle from true North) that the user must travel to get to the destination. This angle is compared with the compass output and a sound is made based on which direction the user must turn to face the final location. The sound consists of short pulses that are delayed between the right and left side and modulated in amplitude to give the effect of direction.

One example implementation of this is self guided tours. A user could be guided though a predetermined course by following the sound of a recorded person's voice. In such a setting, if the user were to veer off course, the system would guide then guide the user back on course. Also, the direction of the guide's voice could be used to highlight the object of interest along the tour.

High level design:

The project idea came after Dr. Land mentioned that you could create the effect of a sound coming from a location by properly spacing the left and right channel by a certain distance. It seemed like a good idea to use this for navigation. This principle is based in the way that humans naturally hear perceive direction. Sound will reach each ear at a slightly different time and volume. Based on those differences, humans are able to determine the direction of sound in the horizontal plane.

Figure 1 shows the high level design of system.

flow

Figure 1: High level system design

The GPS communication uses a standard format (NMEA0283 V 2.2). These standards include GGA, GSV, GSA, and RMC. Of these, RMC (Recommended Minimum Navigation Information) is used in the final product for simplicity. Useful information from this protocol includes time, status, latitude, longitude, speed, and date. The other standards were used for development and debugging.

At this time there is no knowledge of existing patents, copyrights, and or trademarks that are relevant to this project. There are many devices that utilize GPS or a compass, but not together with this synthesized audio.

Program/hardware design

Having three group members made it nice as there were three distinct portions to the project, GPS, compass, and the synthesized audio. Each portion was developed on its own while keeping the others in mind and brought together at the end. For example, planning for the project included allocating resources between the sub functions including timers, registers, and ports.

Bringing together the three separate parts was tricky because of the timing budget. It was known that the GPS could only refresh at 1 Hz, but the sound and compass must be run much faster. We wanted the sound direction to change smoothly during the course of turning your head (faster than 1 Hz). Therefore, the GPS was allowed to run as fast as it could, depending on how many satellites were locked, and how many sound and compass functions were packed in between. This became tricky when multiple satellites were locked and the data stream from the GPS is continuous. The main structure of the program can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Software flow chart

Compass

The digital compass module used was a Hitachi HM55B from Parallax, mainly because we already had it before the project. The communication between this device was done with three wires (clock, data, and enable) in an SPI like fashion. The communication is based on the Basic Stamp function SHIFTIN/SHIFTOUT which is a two wire communication. The challenge was to implement this in C for the ATmega32. Timer1 was used to control the timing of the function and three GPIOs were used for the three controls. The compare interrupt was used to generate the clock and data as this allowed for the clock time to be set at fine resolution resulting in the fastest possible operation of the compass. The clock signal was generated at twice the data rate so that data could be clocked on both the rising and falling edge of the clock in attempt to keep this function as general as possible in case of future use for other projects. To get data, the ATmega32 pulses the enable bit high for two clock cycles, then sends 0b0000 on the shared data_in and data_out line. After another enable toggle, 0b1000 gets sent to the compass signifying a start measurement command. The ATmega32 then sends 0b1100 and reads in four bits waiting for the data conversion to be done. When the compass sends back 0b1100, the data is ready. The ATmega32 then clocks in 22 bits (11 for x value, and 11 for y value) of 2s complement data MSB first. After properly formatting the data to get the proper sign an atan(x/-y) is called to result in an angle. This is then converted from radian to degrees and compensated for the difference between true and magnetic North (subtracting 12 degrees here in Ithaca). The whole function takes 60mS to run, which was determined to be fast enough.

Audio

The PWMs from timers 0 and 2 are used to generate sound pulses. Each timer is set to operate in fast PWM mode with a prescaler of one, giving the PWMs a sample rate of 62500 sample/second. The overflow interrupts of each timer are used to update the OCR.

Initially, timer1 of the Atmega644 was used to generate two PWM waveforms. The idea was that since timer1 has two output compare registers, it should be able to generate two PWMs. Timer1 was able to generate two PWMs, but since OCR1A was used as the top value and the PWM waveforms were not unique, the outputs of OCR1A and OCR1B toggled whenever the overflow interrupt was triggered. Using two timers prevented the overflow interrupt from toggling both pulses and also allowed for one timer to be used as a time based when an interrupt was triggered.

The code used for direct digital synthesis was adopted from lab2 written by Dr. Land4. The DDS process consists of a sin function quantized into a 256 entry table and a ramp table to linearly increase or decrease wave amplitude. For this project, two more tables were used to represent the phase offset and amplitude of the wave at a given source degree. These tables are precomputed to prevent extra computation during execution.

The premise of delaying sounds arriving at each ear to simulate sound localization is based upon interaural time difference. By delaying the sound arriving at one ear by up to 660 microseconds, the sound will have the appearance of coming from the side of the leading sound pulse.5 For example, if the channel going to the left ear is delayed, then the listener will interpret the delay as a sound source that is closer to the person's right ear.

The phase offset table is used to represent the delay that is present at each degree. It was constructed to achieve no offset at a zero degree heading (the source is directly in front of the user) and maximum offset at 90 or 270 degrees. If the sound source is behind the user, then the channel of the ear furthest from the source will be fully delayed, encouraging the user to turn his or her head to better discriminate the location of the sound.

To make the sound direction more apparent, the amplitude of the delayed channel is also reduced. The sound is scaled according to a normal distribution so that full intensity is delivered when the user faces the source with a zero degree difference. As the user rotates away from the source direction, the amplitude of the PWM wave channel furthest from the source is reduced while the closer channel maintains full intensity.

GPS Communication

We used interrupt driven serial communication over the USART to receive data from the GPS. The GPS outputs NMEA sentences approximately once a second at 4800 baud. An example of one packet of NMEA sentences is shown below.

$GPGGA,144739,4251.9960,N,07806.0827,W,1,04,5.6,1898.0,M,34.5,M,,*61
$GPRMC,144739,A,4251.9960,N,07806.0827,W,1908.5,270.0,050510,5,E,A*2F
$GPGSV,8,1,32,01,12,205,-18,02,43,251,14,03,08,022,-22,04,05,271,00*75
$GPGSV,8,2,32,05,78,032,45,06,83,236,48,07,81,084,47,08,64,206,33*71
$GPGSV,8,3,32,09,90,086,52,10,42,202,13,11,26,284,-4,12,88,117,51*6C
$GPGSV,8,4,32,13,90,027,52,14,68,030,37,15,78,143,44,16,60,220,30*7E

There are several cases of redundant data between NMEA sentences and, for the purposes of this project; we only need one set of longitude and latitude. We decided to only read in the RMC (Recommended Minimum Content) sentence as a string and then extract the longitude and latitude from that string.

We use the USART character-ready interrupt which triggers as soon as a full character is received by the USART buffer. Once a character is ready in the USART buffer, the ISR writes the character to a string buffer and enters the state machine. The state machine successively checks for the characters that are expected to be seen at the beginning of the RMC sentence. If the program does not receive the expected header characters, it returns to the beginning of the state machine. If the input characters are ‘$’,’G’,’P’,’R’,’M’, and ’C’ in succession, program records the rest of the sentence as data. The sentence is terminated with the ‘\n’ character.

The data from the RMC sentence is written to a string buffer. Knowing the format of the RMC sentence, we use sscanf to extract the longitude and latitude. The longitude and latitude are sent in the format DDMM.MMMM where DD is in degrees and MM.MMMM is in seconds. We parse the data and recalculate the values in terms of degrees. It should also be noted that when writing to the string buffer, we ignored decimal points due to difficulties with sscanf reading in floating point numbers on the microcontroller. In order to compensate for this, we scaled the longitude and latitudes appropriately during the conversion into degrees and then radians.

We use the following equation to calculate the direction from the user’s current location to the final destination:

atan2(sin(dlon)*cos(lat2), (cos(lat1)*sin(lat2))-(sin(lat1)*cos(lat2)*cos(dlon)));6

where lat1=current latitude, lat2=target latitude, and dlon=difference in current and target longitude.

System Integration/Timing

In order for the interrupts to run at their desired speeds, we found that it was necessary that they not run at the same time. For this reason, we timed our system to first receive data from the GPS, and then run the compass data retrieval function and sound output as many times as possible before the next packet from the GPS.

We start the timing on the first packet received from the GPS and let the USART interrupt run until the entire RMC sentence is received. Once the RMC sentence is received, we turn off the USART interrupt in order to not interrupt on all of the characters of the other NMEA sentences. We then enable the interrupts for the compass function which takes approximately 60ms. As soon as the compass function ends, the sound function and its interrupts are run. The sound function will vary in length

based on its output, but it should never take more the 150ms. We then repeat the compass and sound functions again before turning the USART interrupt on, which will wait for the next RMC sentence. Running the compass and sound functions twice leaves enough time for the USART to be enabled before the next RMC sentence arrives.

The supporting hardware consisted of two active low pass filters used to buffer the audio. The wire routing was kept as compact as possible meaning that data lines ran close to the audio introducing a lot of noise. Using a custom PCB could remedy the problem, but was out of the scope of this project. A potentiometer was used on each channel to adjust the volume allowing ensuring equal volumes when pointing at the destination. Also, an LCD screen was used to select the initial destination. This was done with three buttons, screen up, screen down, and select. These were implemented active low with a 10k ohm pull up resistor and a 330 ohm resistor current protection.

Results:

It was found that overall the device worked as expected as multiple users were able to direct themselves to a location that they were unaware of. The rate at which the GPS acquires data is at best once a second and depends on the number of satellites locked. The sound and compass update twice a second. This is a little slower than desired, but is limited by the speed of the GPS and the computations of the bearing value. Three sound pulses might be possible if the math for the GPS (shown above) is changed from floating point to fixed point. A picture of the final device can be seen in Figure 3. LCD screen is located on the top of the device. This means that the user must take the device off to change location. This is acceptable as a compact unit was part of the project description.

Figure 3: Final Device

The accuracy of the device was found to be subjective to the user and their ability to recognize small differences in the sound pulses. However, it was found that in general the average user was able to resolve a direction to within +/- 10 degrees. The locations for the different data points were initially found with the use of a Motorola Droid and its internal GPS. This was found to be very accurate and provided a location to within a 3 meter radius.

Safety was not a big concern throughout the project, other than being alert and keeping your eyes open when navigating to the final destination. The project did not interface with other projects in a negative way, other than the occasional noise made while testing. The final project is a self contained unit that does not interfere with anything else.

This device could be used to solve a number of issues. As mentioned before, one could be used for self guided tours. Also, a boat operator might find it useful when navigating a boat at night time for far distance navigation. It can be understood that this would be useful for anyone needing navigation while not being able to look at a map. This could be useful for orienteering as you would not need to look at a map but could focus on the environment around you

Conclusion:

Our initial goal was to guide a person by sound using data gathered from a GPS module. Before we started our project we acknowledged that the GPS module would have some uncertainty and there would be difficulty determining if the person was directly over the target location. Given the budget of this project we decided to sacrifice GPS accuracy in favor of staying within budget.

Our final prototype not only stayed within budget, but the GPS module performed to our expectations and the directional sound was sufficiently accurate. During the demo for this project, the professor, Dr. Land, was able to follow the sound pulses to a location about 5 minutes walking distance away. Dr. Land had no previous training with this device, but he was able to final the target location within 3 meters. Other curious bystanders were also able to identify the direction of target with very little direction.

If this project were to be improved, then a different GPS module capable of updating at 5Hz could be used instead of the 1Hz GPS used in the current prototype. This would increase the budget by about $25, but the code would also have to be altered to accommodate the more frequent updates. However more updates would require a faster clock speed, less frequent PWM pulses, or both. A different compass with a higher resolution than 6bits could also be used, but this would also increase the price of the project.

As mentioned in the introduction the GPS communication uses a standard format (NMEA0283 V 2.2). These standards include GGA, GSV, GSA, and RMC. Of these, RMC (Recommended Minimum Navigation Information) is used in the final product for simplicity. The other standards were used for development and debugging.

The code that was adapted from the 4760 website was from lab 2. This code consisted of using the PWM for DDS.

Intellectual property considerations:

This project was designed to aid a person in guiding them towards a destination. It is not intended to be used to assist a person purely based upon sound. The navigation data used by this device is based upon GPS data, therefore obstacles are not taken into consideration and this device will not guide a person around any potential hazards.

The device does not produce an electrical shock or any other hazard that may cause harm to the person wearing it. The device is powered by a household 9V battery, therefore all safety considerations that apply to the proper handling of 9V batteries also apply to this device. The bread board is insulated from the user by the headphones. The only safety consideration that may affect the individual wearing this device is if the person wears it in the rain. Although the device is insulated from the user's head, the device does not have a cover to prevent moisture damage. Therefore this device should not be worn in any circumstance where it could be contaminated by moisture.

The data gathered by the GPS is only stored long enough to determine the direction that the user must travel. The data is not stored or tracked by any other means. Therefore, the privacy of the user is not violated by tracking the location of user.

Task List

Nick - GPS, Audio buffering/Filtering, general debug

Matt - Sound (PWM), LCD/Buttons, general debug

Garret -Compass, Combined three main programs together

References

Compass Module - http://www.parallax.com/Store/Microcontrollers/BASICStampModules/tabid/134/ProductID/98/List/1/Default.aspx?SortField=UnitCost,ProductName

GPS Module - http://www.parallax.com/StoreSearchResults/tabid/768/txtSearch/GPS/List/0/SortField/4/ProductID/560/Default.aspx

ATmega 32 - http://www.parallax.com/StoreSearchResults/tabid/768/txtSearch/GPS/List/0/SortField/4/ProductID/560/Default.aspx

ECE4760 - http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ee476/

Interaul Time Difference- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaural_time_difference

http://www.movable-type.co.uk/scripts/latlong.html

Challenges:

In order to make the sound more pleasing to the ear and not nauseating, we had to keep the pulses consistently spaced in a consistent pattern. We did this by timing how long each function took and then spacing them out based on this. We initially tried to run the compass and sound one by one while the USART was running in the background the entire time. The overlapping interrupts caused unpredictable delays which were not only nauseating, but caused the data updates to be too slow for reasonable use.

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