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Monday, 24 June 2013

Automatic Railway Gate Control & Track Switching

This project utilizes two powerful IR transmitters and two receivers; one pair of transmitter and receiver is fixed at up side (from where the train comes) at a level higher than a human being in exact alignment and similarly the other pair is fixed at down side of the train direction. Sensor activation time is so adjusted by calculating the time taken at a certain speed to cross at least one compartment of standard minimum size of the Indian railway. We have considered 5 seconds for this project. Sensors are fixed at 1km on both sides of the gate. We call the sensor along the train direction as ‘foreside sensor’ and the other as ‘aft side sensor’. When foreside receiver gets activated, the gate motor is turned on in one direction and the gate is closed and stays closed until the train crosses the gate and reaches aft side sensors. When aft side receiver gets activated motor turns in opposite direction and gate opens and motor stops. Buzzer will immediately sound at the fore side receiver activation and gate will close after 5 seconds, so giving time to drivers to clear gate area in order to avoid trapping between the gates and stop sound after the train has crossed.

The same principle is applied for track switching. Considering a situation wherein an express train and a local train are traveling in opposite directions on the same track; the express train is allowed to travel on the same track and the local train has to switch on to the other track. Two sensors are placed at the either sides of the junction where the track switches. If there’s a train approaching from the other side, then another sensor placed along that direction gets activated and will send an interrupt to the controller. The interrupt service routine switches the track. Indicator lights have been provided to avoid collisions. Here the switching operation is performed using a stepper motor. Assuming that within a certain delay, the train has passed the track is switched back to its original position, allowing the first train to pass without any interruption. This concept of track switching can be applied at 1km distance from the stations.

Microcontroller Based Projects LIST

Multi Task Industrial Timer Using Microcontroller* Multi Task Industrial Timer Using Microcontroller
* Digital Clock Using AT89C2051 Microcontroller
* Laser Based Automatic Visitor Counter cum Room Light Controller
* Biomedical Data Transmission Using Wireless Network
* Digital Clock Using AT89C51 Microcontroller
* Industrial Automation using computer’s parallel port (Visual Basic)
* Digital Day And Date Display Using Microcontroller
* Digital Countdown Timer Using Microcontroller
* Digital 74 Series IC Tester
* Digital Visitor Counter Using Microcontroller
* DS1620 Based Temperature Controller Using Microcontroller
* DS1820 Based High Precision Temperature Indicator Using Microcontroller
* Electronic Voting Machine Using Microcontroller
* Electronics Components Tester Using Microcontroller
* Biometric Security System (Finger Print Based)
* Ultrasonic Distance Meter using microcontroller
* Mobile Controlled Robot Machine
* Telephone Controlled Device Switching Using Microcontroller
* Infrared Interrupt counters Using Microcontroller
* 6 Line and one fan Infrared Remote Switch Using Microcontroller
* Infrared Remote Switch Using Microcontroller
* Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS)
* Line Following Robot Using Microcontroller
* Microcontroller Based Telephone Caller ID
* Microcontroller Based Digital Clock with Alarm
* Password Based Digital code Lock Using Microcontroller
* Multi function Running Lights Using Microcontroller
* Parallel Telephone instrument with secured privacy Using Microcontroller
* Computer to microcontroller communication (Wireless) Using Microcontroller
* PC BASED DATA LOGGER Using Microcontroller and Visual Basic
* Computer Based Digital IC Tester
* PC Controlled Robot Machine
* Control Ur PC by remote Control
* Simcard Based Prepaid Energy Meter Using Microcontroller
* Industrial Automation and message transmission using internet
* Digital Clock with Remote controlled time settings Using Microcontroller
* Electric Energy Meter Reading Through Wireless
* Wireless Controlled Robot Machine
* RFID Based Attendance System
* RFID Based Security System
* Data Transmission Through wireless network
* Sending SMS To Landline Telephone Using Microcontroller
* Wireless Data Communication (AT89S52)
* Efficient Solar Energy generation using movable solar panel
* Motor controller using Telephone
* Industrial control using Telephone
* Temperature controlled Colling Fan Using Microcontroller
* Time Operated Electrical Appliances Controlling System
* Traffic signal Controller Using Microcontroller
* Two Line Intercom Using Microcontroller
* Microcontroller-based LED Light Chaser
* Microcontroller-based Temperature Indicator
* PC-based Wireless Stepper Motor Control
* Microcontroller-based Ring Tone Player
* Solar LED Lighting System
* Clap-operated Appliance Control
* Microcontroller-based Speedometer-Cum-Odometer
* PC-Based Mobile Robot for Navigation
* Solar Electric Fence
* Four-Channel Analogue-to-Digital Converter
* Microcontroller-based Temperature Meter
* Kapalbhati Pranayama Timer
* Microcontroller-Based Inductance Meter
* Cellphone-Operated Land Rover
* Presentable Timer Using Secret-Coded Punched Card
* Rank Display System for Race and Quiz Competitions
* Remote-Controlled Toy Boat
* Microcontroller-Based Heart-Rate Meter
* Multiple Devices Switching Through Parallel Port
* Microcontroller-Based Capacitance Meter
* Token Number Display
* Microcontroller-Based DC Motor Speed Controller
* Buzzer Controller for 8-Team Quiz Contests
* Microcontroller-based Ultrasonic Distance Meter
* Microcontroller-based Tachometer
* Temperature Indicator-cum-Controller
* Microcontroller-Based Alarm Clock
* Simple PC-Based Digital Sound-Level Meter
* Low-Cost Versatile Timer Using AT89C2051
* Parallel-Port Interfacing and Programming Aid
* Digital Heart-Beat Counter
* Secured Room Access System
* Digital Voltmeter
* Microcontroller-based Graphics Display
* Microcontroller-based Industrial Timer
* Standalone Digital Clock
* PC-based Dual DC Motor Controller
* Wireless Messaging Via Mobile/Landline Phone
* Microcontroller-based Infrared Tracking Robot
* Remote-Controlled Real-Time Clock with Device Controller
* Auto Controller for Petrol-Run Power Generator
* Design Your Own Infrared Remote
* PIC16F84-based Digital Thermometer
* Water-level Controller-cum-motor Protector
* Digital Phase Selector
* Microcontroller-based Bidirectional Visitor Counter
* Microcontroller-based Automatic Flush System
* Two-Channel PC-based Oscilloscope
* Quiz Buzzer
* Stepper Motor Controller Using AT89C51
* Beverage Vending Machine Controller
* Digital Thermometer-cum-Controller
* Digital Weight Accumulator
* Remotely Programmable RTC-Interfaced Microcontroller for Multiple Device Control
* Auto Switch for TV
* Microcontroller-based Code Lock
* Microcontroller-based Triggering Circuit for SCR Phase Control
* Parallel-Port Testing and Programming Aid
* Fastest-Finger-First Using Microcontroller
* Remote-Controlled Land Rover—A DIY Robotic Project
* 3D Surround Sound System
* AVR Microcontroller-Based Clock
* Automatic Rain Timer
* Power Factor Correction
* AT89C2051-Based Countdown Timer
* PC-Based Remote-Controlled Stepper Motor
* Low-Cost LCD Frequency Meter
* PC-Based Transistor-Lead Identifier
* A Simple Directional Detector/Counter
* Using AVR Microcontroller for Projects—Part 3 of 3
* Speed Checker for Highways (2005)
* Using AVR Microcontroller for Projects—Part 2 of 3
* Automatic 3-Phase Induction Motor Starter
* Using AVR Microcontrollers for Projects—Part 1 of 3
* Noise-Muting FM Receiver
* Digital Stopwatch
* Remote-Controlled Stepper Motor
* Computerized Electrical Equipment Control
* Manual AT89C51 Programmer
* Medium-Power Low-Cost Inverter
* Programmable Timer Based on AT90S4433 AVR
* Low-Cost Energy Meter Using ADE7757
* Two-Wheeler Security System
* Auto Changeover to Generator on Mains Failure—Part II
* PC-based Scrolling Message Display
* Auto Changeover to Generator on Mains Failure—Part I
* Device Control through PC’s Parallel Port Using Visual Basic
* Remote-Controlled Digital Audio Processor
* Microcontroller-based Real-time Clock
* Standalone Scrolling Display Using AT90S8515 AVR
* Moving Message Over Dot-Matrix Display(2004)
* Ultrasonic Lamp-Brightness Controller
* Digital Combination Lock
* Safety Guard for the Blind
* Microprocessor-Based Home Security System
* Stepper Motor Control Using 89C51 Microcontroller
* Dynamic Temperature Indicator and Controller
* Voice Recording and Playback Using APR9600 Chip
* Load Protector with Remote Switching Facility
* PIC16F84-Based Coded Device Switching System
* Remote-Controlled Sophisticated Electronic Code Lock
* Temperature Indicator Using AT89C52
* Device Switching Using Password
* Laser-Based Communication Link
* Programmer for 89C51/89C52/89C2051 Microcontrollers
* A Bidirectional Visitors Counter
* Digital Clock Using Discrete ICs
* Lift Overload Prevented
* Sound-Operated On/Off Switch
* Digital Water-Level Indicator Cum Pump Controller
* PC-Based Data Logger
* Automatic Water-Level Controller
* Microcontroller-Based Call Indicator
* Controlling a 7-Segment Display Using PC’s Parallel Port(2003)
* Economical UPS for Cordless Phones
* Binary-To-Hexadecimal Decoder
* Proportional Load Control Using PC
* Multifactor Emergency Light
* Fluid Level with Indicator
* Microcontroller-Based School Timer
* Telephone Remote Control
* Auto-Control for 3-Phase Motors
* Programmable Melody Generator -Part II

Minor Projects list For Engineering Students

1. Digital Thermometer
2. Infrared Remote controlled for home appliances switch
3. Digital Combination Lock
4. Security System Using laser Rays
5. Digital Clock
6. FM Transmitter
7. Advanced FM Transmitter
8. FM Receiver
9. Multi Siron (Police siron, ambulance siron,Fire Brigade siron, Machine gun )
10. Automatic Water level controller
11. Automatic Water level controller with spoken Message (pani ki tankibhar gayi hai, kripaya motor band karen, attention please your water tank is full please shut off the motor)
12. Automatic advanced water level controller
13. Fire alarm
14. Automatic traffic light controller
15. 25 Tune ( Hindi song tunes )Musical bell
16. Gayatri Mantra Continious mantra chanting machine
17. Maha-mrityunjay mantra Continuous mantra chanting machine
18. Namokar mantra Continious mantra chanting machine
19. Shiram jairam jai jai ram Continuous mantra chanting machine
20. Sun-Down switch( Advanced Street light controller)
21. Visitor counter
22. Pollution controlling Tower ( It filters the solid particles from smoke)
23. Effect of current through a magnetic coil
24. Generation of electricity by moving magnetic field
25. Clap switch
26. Two digit industrial object counter
27. Three digit industrial object counter
28. Advanced Ni-Cad Battery Charger
29. Mobile charger using IC 555
30. Earth quack sensor
31. Business shops shutter guard
32. Robotic Car (Controlled By Wired Remote Control)
33. Robotic Car (Controlled by Radio Frequency Remote control)
34. Model Of Voting Machine
35. Copper Electro Plating
36. Wind Mill (Electricity generation by wind)
37. Mobile shield
38. Intelligent automatic Three phase shifter system
39. Fastest Finger Quiz Master
40. Disco Light (Running Lights)
41. Magic tester (Can Detect electricity from distance and is very useful in finding faults)
42. Fused Tube Glower (this circuit is used to glow even Fused tub light)
43. Laser light fence ( A Security system to cover your whole house)
44. Parrot sound Electric Doorbell
45. Over Voltage Electricity Tripping switch
46. Power saving Electronic Choke For Tube-Lights
47. Solid State Lamp (Bulb) dimmer
48. Water level indicator (Shows the level of water in overhead water tank)
49. Variable Regulated Power Supply (0-32Volts)
50. Automatic Night Lamp
51. Extra ordinary staircase light switch
52. Automatic railway gate controller
53. Ultrasonic mosquito repellent
54. Letter box indicator
55. Multi purpose mix amplifier
56. Visual telephone locator (Electric bulb will glow on ringing the telephone bell)
57. Quiz Timer
58. Intercom
59. Dancing bulb on music (the intensity of light changes with the sound)
60. Listening bug
61. Infra red shadow detector
62. Temperature controller
63. Zener diode tester
64. Head phone amplifier
65. Magic Organ (light operated music generation)
66. Telephone tapping detector (If anyone lifts the phone in parallel connected phone)
67. Toy Telephone
68. Rain alarm
69. Electronic magic door lock using password
70. Lie detector
71. Mosquito repellent machine
72. Telephone Call detector
73. Fuse tube light glower without any choke
74. Morning alarm
75. Magic telephone lock
76. 3 in 1 circuit (light blinker, rain alarm, water tank alarm, light detector)
77. Low price hearing aid
78. Rat repellent machine
79. Automatic Phase Changer
80. Flying Saucer
81. Anti-Collision Rear Light
82. Light Fence
83. MAT Switch
84. 5-Bands Graphic Equalizer
85. Clock Timer
86. Fully Automatic Emergency Light
87. IR Music Transmitter and Receiver
88. Electronic Horn
89. Ultrasonic Proximity Detector
90. Secret Bell
91. Variable Power Supply Using a Fixed-Voltage Regulator IC
92. Appliance Timer-Cum-Clap Switch
93. Telephone-Operated Calling System
94. Front Door Guard
95. Bell-Cum Light Controller
96. Friendly Charger for Mobile Phones
97. Hearing Aid
98. Speed Control of DC Motor Using Pulse-Width Modulation
99. Remote-Controlled Fan Regulator
100. Low-Power Voltage Doublers
101. Parrot-Sounding AC Doorbell
102. Multi-Melody Generator with Instrumental Effect
103. School/College Quiz Buzzer
104. Visual AC Mains Voltage Indicator
105. Simple Short-Wave Transmitter
106. Solar Lighting System
107. Infrared Bug
108. Picnic Lamp
109. Versatile Power Supply
110. Ultrasonic Proximity Detector
111. Shadow Alarm
112. IR Burglar Deterrents
113. Versatile Water-Level Controller
114. Automatic-Off Timer for CD Players
115. Heat-Sensitive Switch
116. Sensitive Vibration Detector
117. Digital Dice
118. Remote-Controlled Power-Off Switch
119. Little Door Guard
120. Stress Meter
121. Teleconferencing System
122. Medium-Power FM Transmitter
123. Smart Cell phone Holder
124. Fuel Reserve Indicator for Vehicles
125. Brake Failure Indicator

Monday, 3 June 2013


The aim of the project is to move a robotic arm to pick and place a particular object. The system can also record a path in its memory and move in this predefined path. This project consists of a microcontroller section and mechanical section. The microcontroller section stores a program that controls the movements of the robotic arm. The arm consists of some motors for the movements of robot.

A robot is a mechanical arm, a manipulator designed to perform many different tasks and capable of repeated, variable programming. To perform its assigned tasks, the robot moves parts, objects, tools, and special devices by means of programmed motions and points. The robotic arm performs motions in space. Its function is to transfer objects or tools from point to point, as instructed by the controller.

            Robot has a motor- driven mechanical arm and a brain in the form of a computer or a microcontroller that controls its movement. The microcontroller stores in its memory a program detailing the course the arm follows. When the program is run, the controller sends signals activating the motors which move the arm and the load at the end of the arm, which is held under control by the end effector. The controller is that part of the robot which operates the mechanical arm and maintains contact with its environment. The device is a computer composed of hardware and software, combined to enable it to carry out its assigned tasks.
            The amount and rate of movement are regulated exactly by the controller. The program moves the arm through a series of points. At some of these points, the end effector is activated to grip or release an object, use a tool, or do what is required. Attached to the end of the arm is an end effector, used by the robot to carry out its assigned task. End effectors vary according to the job at hand.

Saturday, 1 June 2013


This project develops a four-legged walking robot used to explore a remote location by sensing the environmental parameters like humidity, atmospheric pressure, light intensity, and ambient temperature processes it and transmits the collected data to the control station using wireless means. The robot can also detect the object/obstacles in its path by verifying the output from the IR (Infra Red Sensors). Since the robot is of six legs it possess grip on all types of surfaces whether hilly area or smooth surface. So this project is helpful for the military/ space expedition etc to verify the atmospheric situations in a particular area without any human intervention. This project consists of a microcontroller section and mechanical section. The microcontroller section stores a program that controls the movements of the robot, atmospheric parameter sensing and object/obstacle detection. The mechanical section consists of servo motors for the movements of robot.

A robot is a mechanical device, a manipulator designed to perform many different tasks and capable of repeated, variable programming. To perform its assigned tasks, the robot moves parts, objects, tools, and special devices by means of programmed motions and points. The science and technology that deals with study of robots, their design, manufacture, and application is known as Robotics. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of autonomous control. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases - perception, processing and action.

The robot holds a mechanical structure that consisting servo motors for the movements of robot, and an electronic circuitry which acts as the CPU/ head (Intelligence) of the robot. A microcontroller acts as a Central Processing Unit, which stores an algorithm that controls the movements of the robot, ambient parameter sensing and object/obstacle detection. The monitoring sections are occupied with a wireless CAM and specialized sensors. Wireless CAM, which continuously monitors /captures the videos of the surroundings that covered by four-Legged Robot. The robot is fixed with various sensors that monitor atmospheric temperature, light intensity, relative humidity and pressure. The object is detected using IR Sensor module which comprise of an IR transmitter and receiver section. If the distance to the object from robot is found less than the predefined value, the Sensor produces control signals to the CPU that changes the motion algorithm that matches to the situation and changes the path of the robot. The raw analog outputs from sensors after filtering and signal processing are directed to the ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) module. The digital output of the ADC further processing is given to the USART (Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) module for communication purpose. The results are automatically archived on each time interval. After the purpose full level conversion process these parameters are sent to the remote monitoring station at definite intervals using Zigbee based Wireless Communication Network. So the man in concern can view the area that covered by the robot along with the real time parameters of that particular place. Since the communication used is of both to and fro, the man can also control its motion to follow a particular direction/ object from the remote location.
ZigBee is a wireless technology developed as an open global standard to address the unique needs of low-cost, low-power, wireless sensor networks. The standard takes full advantage of the IEEE 802.15.4 physical radio specification and operates in unlicensed bands worldwide at the following frequencies: 2.400–2.484 GHz, 902-928 MHz and 868.0–868.6 MHz. The 802.15.4 specification was developed at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). The specification is a packet-based radio protocol that meets the needs of low-cost, battery-operated devices. The protocol allows devices to intercommunicate and be powered by batteries that last years instead of hours.
The ZigBee protocol was engineered by the ZigBee Alliance, a non-profit consortium of leading semiconductor manufacturers, technology providers, OEMs and end-users worldwide. The protocol was designed to provide OEMs and integrators with an easy-to-use wireless data solution characterized by low-power consumption, support for multiple network structures and secure connections.
If the system is enhanced with a digital camera, the image of the surroundings can be stored/ sent by the robot. Thus this project can be used in space exploration where the robot functions without human interference. The environmental parameters can be sensed by the control station using the wireless receiver module.  Hence this robot resembles rovers (robotic exploration vehicles), the robot that made a series of missions to Mars.
The control station PC interfaced with a wireless communication module, which interprets the incoming data from the microcontroller transmitted via ZIGBEE, and displays the needed data in corresponding pages. For this purpose here we develop application software using Visual Basic- a user friendly design language, to achieve PC and embedded system interfacing. We can also go for HTML/ VB.NET/ASP.NET as per the requirement.