Friday, 22 June 2012
Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems improve missile accuracy by improving its "Single Shot Kill Probability" (SSKP), which is part of combat survivability calculations associated with salvo combat model.
These guidance technologies can generally be divided up into a number of categories, with the broadest categories being "active," "passive" and "preset" guidance. Missiles and guided bombs generally use similar types of guidance system, the difference between the two being that missiles are powered by an onboard engine, whereas guided bombs rely on the speed and height of the launch aircraft for propulsion
Guidance systems are divided into different categories according to what type of target they are designed for - either fixed targets or moving targets. The weapons can be divided into two broad categories, Go-Onto-Target (GOT) and Go-Onto-Location-in-Space (GOLIS) guidance systems. A GOT missile can target either a moving or fixed target, whereas a GOLIS weapon is limited to a stationary or near-stationary target. The trajectory that a missile takes while attacking a moving target is dependent upon the movement of the target. Also, a moving target can be an immediate threat to the sender of the missile. The target needs to be eliminated in a timely fashion in order to preserve the integrity of the sender.
/* This project is develop to generate two seperate channel PWM signals at 50HZ frequency
The duty cycle of the pulses is variable subject to the input on Port1 and port2.
The output PWM signal can be used to drive SCR or triacs to control the phase angle and power of any load with suitable hardware interface.
Please not that in this project the OPAMP are used to convert the pulses to 0 - 5 V, means you can use it in as two channel DAC also.
But for triac or SCR interface the OPAMP circuit will be re-placed with proper optocoupler like moc3020 and scrs.89c51 as pwm controller
unsigned char ch_count;// two channel counts array
unsigned char ch_duty_level;// level of the duty cycle
bit int_10ms;// this is a flag wich is set every 10msec time period
sbit PWM1 = P3^6;
sbit PWM2 = P3^7;
sbit indicator = P3^5;
void external_interrupt (void) interrupt 0
// external interrupt for zero crossing dectection
// on zero crossing detection, counts are updated for both PWM channels
PWM1=0; // the output is active low
PWM2 =0;//89c51 as pwm controller
int_10ms = 1; // 10msec flag is set
void timer_interrupt (void) interrupt 1
// The timer 0 is used for the duty cycle adjustement of two channel PWM
TL0 = 0XE2; //reset timer LSB
if(--ch_count==0) PWM1 = 1;
// each time the timer interrupt occur the counts are decreased by one and on reaching zero
if(--ch_count==0) PWM2 = 1;
// the outputs are turned off, as the out put is active low
void main (void)
ET0 = 1; // enables the Timer 0 interrupt of 8051
TMOD = 0x02;
// timer mode register, timer 0 is used in mode 2
TL0 = 0XE2; // Initialize timer0 LSB
TR0 = 1; // timer 0 is activated
EX0 = 1; // external inturpt is activated
IT0 = 1;
EA = 1;
ch_duty_level = 30; // dummy value for duty cycle for PWM 1
ch_duty_level = 60; // dummy value for duty cycle for PWM 2
while (1) // endless loop
int_10ms = 0;
ch_duty_level = P1;
// take the input value of duty cycle for PWM 1 fromport1 of the 8051
ch_duty_level = P2;
// take the input value of duty cycle for PWM 2 fromport1 of the 8051
indicator =~ indicator;
The GSM net used by cell phones provides a low cost, long range, wireless communication channel for applications that need connectivity rather than high data rates. Machinery such as industrial refrigerators and freezers, HVAC, vending machines, vehicle service etc. could benefit from being connected to a GSM system.
Take a given example. A garage offers a very special package to their customers. Based on the mechanics knowledge and the given vehicle, tailored service intervals can be specified. A part of the service agreement is installation of a GSM modem in the vehicle. An onboard service application can then notify the garage when the vehicle approaches its service interval. The garage will schedule an appointment and inform the customer.
The customer will benefit from a reliable and well-serviced vehicle at a minimum cost. The garage on the other hand can provide excellent customer support, vehicle statistics, efficient work scheduling, and minimum stocks.
Theory of operation
The protocol used by GSM modems for setup and control is based on the Hayes AT-Command set. The GSM modem specific commands are adapted to the services offered by a GSM modem such as: text messaging, calling a given Phone number, deleting memory locations etc. Since the main objective for this application note is to show how to send and receive text messages, only a subset of the AT-Command set needs to be implemented.
The report discusses the system description. Operating controls and other features of 48V Float-Cum-Boost charger. The system is meant for keeping the battery in a healthy condition and to supply DC loads.
The charger has two modes. Float and boost. In this float mode, the FCBC supplies the DC load and the trickle charging current of the battery. Normally the _7. will be floated across the FCBC. Boost mode is meant for charging the battery.
Automatic charging of Battery is possible in the float mode. In this mode,when the current drawn by the battery exceeds the set value, the charger will automatically charge mode to charge the battery. once the battery current fails the charger returns to float mode. During mains fail, charger remains OFF and load supplied by the battery.
India is a country where the maximum number of deaths occurs due to road accidents and most of these occur due to over speeding. Manifold attempts have been made to produce reliable and efficient means of detecting over speeding vehicles. The hand held over speeding detector is one such device. The disadvantage of such a device was that it was cumbersome and required expert hands for it's operation; also by the time a speed reading is obtained, the vehicle would long have gone.
Thus the necessities for a more reliable and easily operable device made us think of doing the same as a project. The special features of this device are that it can be operated from as far as 100m and thus the over speeding vehicle can easily be identified.Also, distinct from the conventional speed detector, this device operates not on the echo principle or the Doppler effect, but on highly coherent laser beams. There is also the added advantage that it can be setup on any road and is also easily transferable.
Overview Of The Product
The product is a sleek hand held device that can be operated by the traffic official whenever he observes an over speeding vehicle, to obtain the correct speed of the vehicle. It has a 2 digit 7-segment display, which can display speeds up to 97km/h. It also has two switches, which are used for starting the device and for enabling it only when required. The state of the device is indicted by three status indicating LEDs which display the following conditions: a green LED indicating power on, an orange LED indicating the set or enabled condition, and a red LED indicating speeds in excess of 100 km/h.
This sleek and handy version enables the traffic official to operate the device without any problem and with utmost ease. Moreover, the product uses only the most commonly available CMOS ics, which facilitate easy maintenance. The circuit in itself is very simple and easy to implement so that troubleshooting is made very simple. The other features of the device are that it can be easily set upon any road and can be easily transferred. Also, since this can operate on any source of light, it is easily implementable and guarantees satisfactory performance.
Principle Of Operation
The operation of "Over speed Detector" depends on the simple one-dimensional equation of motion, i.e. speed= distance /time. It consists basically of a source - sensor couple and a hand held device. The source- sensor couple is placed on the road at a distance of 1m from each other.When the operator gets a visual indication that a vehicle is over speeding, he can initiate the device from as far as 100m.When the vehicle cuts the first laser beam, the sensor is set and the transition pulse is transferred to the hand held device.
The device now starts counting from a fixed clock. When the vehicle cuts the second laser beam, the transition pulse is again transferred to the device, which stops the counting. What we have now obtained is the time taken for the vehicle to cover a distance of 1m. This count is then decoded to obtain the speed-reading. Once the speed-reading is obtained, the official can decided whether the vehicle is over speeding or not as per the rules and regulations pertaining to different road conditions.
This counter can be used to know the number of visitors present in the room at any given time. It is useful for places such as movie halls, buldings and offices. To keep the cost low it uses simple calculator instead of a counter-and display circuit. The calculator can be used as a normal calculator is plugging it off from the circuit. All the components are readily available in market and the circuit is easy to build.
Two transmitter-receiver pairs are used at the passage: One pair comprising light source A (transmitter) and light -dependent resistor LDR1 (receiver) is installed at the entry side of the passage, while the other pair comprising light source B (transmitter) and LDR2 (receiver) is installed exit side of the passage. Light from. two light sources (torches) should continuously fall on the respective light dependent resistors (LDRs), so proper orientation of light beams and LDRs is essential.
The microcontroller based Barcode Decoder decodes code 39 .Code 39 was first barcode symbology to encode alphanumeric data strings .It is for this many industrial groups accepted this technology for their labeling requirements .It is widely used as standard for their labeling requirements .It is widely used in variety of applications. Hewlet- Packard's industrial Digital slot Reader is used here.HP Barcode decoders provide an excellent scanning performance on a wide range of bar-coded cards and badges .When a bar coded card is swiped the slot reader gives a stream of pulses with varying widths .The count corresponding to these pulses widths are stored in the RAM. These are then decoded by the software, which is written in the PL/M -51.PL/M-51 is a high level language for programming various families of microprocessors and microcontroller .The Intel Corporation designed it .later the stored pulse widths are compared with the character set and the decoded output is displayed on the Liquid Crystal Display.
Signals, including those used for communication between occupants of a car or train.Indicators, recorders, telegraphic, telephonic, or other similar apparatus when especially designed for use in connection with car or train movements, except manually-set devices, such as train and engine signs and markers capable of general use.
Devices on the roadway, such as signals, switches, circuit closures, gates, etc., actuated or controlled from or by the moving vehicles, except circuit-controllers actuated by the vehicle for the purpose of energizing sectionalized conductors used for supplying propulsion-current thereto.
Automatic train stop and speed control means, the actuation of which is initiated by agencies not on the train or by wheel derailment or defects in train structure and mechanism, the automatic stop, for classification purposes, being considered an equivalent of and substitute for a railway signal; but train stopping and control mechanism cooperating with obstacles fixed in position upon the track which have no moving parts are excluded from this class except when they cooperate with speed-responsive devices on the train.
Safety devices, including derailing switches and blocks, used for preventing accidents caused by the misplacement of switches, disregard of signals etc.The structure of signals, switches, frogs, and crossings and their appurtenances.Mechanism for the manual or other actuation of any of the devices of the class.
The limited time and resources have restricted us to incorporate, in this project, only a main activities that are performed in a Bank Management System, but utmost care has been taken to make the system efficient and user friendly. “Bank Management System” has been designed to computerized the following functions that are performed by the system:
Customer Details Functions
• Opening a New Account
• Closing the existing Account
• Modification to customer details
• Daily transaction record to require customer A/C
Fixed Deposit Functions
• Open New Fixed Deposit
• Details of Fixed Deposit in Bank
• Close particular Fixed Deposit in Maturity
• Fixed Deposit amount report on Maturity
• Statement of customer Account
a.1) Monthly statement
a.2) Daily statement
• Total numbers of Customer in Bank
• Total balance in Bank
• Individual Customer Report
• Password checking functions
The basic objective of Bank Management System is to generalize and simplify the day to day or activities of Company like New Account opening, Daily transaction, Report/Statements etc. which has to be performed repeatedly on regular basis. To provide efficient, fast, reliable and user-friendly system is the basic motto behind this exercise.
A bank is a primer body is sources of money storage where we can deposit the money when we not much needed and can withdraw whenever require. In Bank, we can issue cheque or draft, which are other way of transferring the money from one source to other.
This is a cooperative project requiring the combined efforts of everyone in the class. Participants will be assigned roles in the project, and grades will be based on:
• how well each of your carries out your assigned role, as measured by products you generate.
• quality of the final product.
• conduct of a series of specification, design, and test reviews leading up to the final product qualification test
An Architectural description is provided on the next page, along with additional notes and comments. Also included are job descriptions for each of the roles to be assigned.
Purpose of the Project:
The goal of the Collaboration Server System (CSERV) is to support conduct of shared work activities of software development teams, which may be separated in both space and time. The primary function of CSERV is to support project management activities, rather than project products. That is, the goal of CSERV is to manage people, tasks, and information about software development projects that are registered with it.
The Collaboration Server will support multiple projects, and provide role-based and team-based access to information about each project. The intent is that most project information is viewable by everyone with a Collaboration Server account, but the ability to modify a stored item is, by default, awarded only to the responsible individual for that item. Any project administrator may override that default, and an item's responsible individual may grant permission to modify it to other project members.
The CSERV provides a set of tools for working with a common set of project data for: technical collaboration, documentation, disclosure, scheduling, notification, and monitoring progress against schedule. Since all tools share the same information, they work together to provide a diverse, but consistent view of a project's management information. A change in project data made by one tool is immediately visible by any other tool that accesses the same information.
The main functions provided by the Collaboration Server are:
• Record and disclose project team structures and staffing
• Organization chart with contact, job description, and biography information for each project member attached
• Announcements of new additions and changes of responsibility
• Support development, recording, disclosure, and assignment of work packages to teams and people.
• Work packages define specific activities, start and completion dates, and responsible individuals (RIs).
• Each package provides links to issues statements and completed work.
• Each package has an associated list of zero or more action items with responsible individuals and creation dates. Usually, the responsible individual will be the package RI, but additional people may be assigned co-responsibility for action completion.
• Completed action items have resolution statement and date.
• Provide scheduling support for each project, team, and individual.
• Work schedules, e.g., start, duration, and completion of each work package
• Alerts for scheduled reviews and collaboration events
• Specialized schedules for reviews, deliveries, and meetings.
• Support daily communication between teams.
• Project and team whiteboards
• Project and team Wikis
• Notification service
• Document management:
• Web-based document management system
• All documentation is available via webpages, except for correspondence with customers
• Project Progress Monitor:
• Evaluate and display progress of work package completion versus schedule for any registered project
• Evaluate and display a set of progress metrics for each team
• i. List of task completions with completion time relative to scheduled completion, in percent of project time ahead of schedule (+) or behind schedule (-).
• ii. Reviews assigned/completed
• iii. Tests assigned/completed
• iv. Documents assigned/completed
• Browsing Service:
• Supports the role-based examination of all data stored on the Collaboration Server.
• Distributed Clients:
• CSERV Clients provide access to the CSERV server information.
• Each Client supports local project communication tools, e.g., whiteboard, access to Wikis, notification client, and support for digital meetings.
• Communication System based on message-passing through sockets and web services:
• Supports client/Collaboration Server communication and Client/Client communication.
• Supports notifications.
• Data Management:
• Supports storage of all shared data, as described above, on the Collaboration Server.
• The unit of storage is an item, and every item has one, and only one, responsible individual.
Start and completion dates are associated with each work package. The schedule accesses this information for editing and display. Documentation includes specifications, design documents, code (production, test, and prototypes), schedules, and all other project planning documents. Specifications, design documents, and code are usually held in a repository, but the tools to create specifications and design documents as web pages are provided by CServ. Also, CServ provides the tool or tools to create webpage representations of code.
Wednesday, 6 June 2012
Vehicle accidents are most common if the driving is inadequate. These happen on most factors if the driver is drowsy or if he is alcoholic. Driver drowsiness is recognized as an important factor in the vehicle accidents. It was demonstrated that driving performance deteriorates with increased drowsiness with resulting crashes constituting more than 20% of all vehicle accidents. But the life lost once cannot be re-winded. Advanced technology offers some hope avoid these up to some extent.
This project involves measure and controls the eye blink using IR sensor. The IR transmitter is used to transmit the infrared rays in our eye. The IR receiver is used to receive the reflected infrared rays of eye. If the eye is closed means the output of IR receiver is high otherwise the IR receiver output is low. This to know the eye is closing or opening position. This output is give to logic circuit to indicate the alarm.
This project helps in controlling accidents due to unconsciousness through Eye blink. Here one eye blink sensor is fixed in vehicle where if driver looses consciousness, then it is indicate through alarm.
A car simulator study was designed to collect physiological data for validation of this technology. Methodology for analysis of physiological data, independent assessment of driver drowsiness and development of drowsiness detection algorithm by means of sequential fitting and selection of regression models is presented.
Kitron had wishes to be able to test and measure how disturbance affects their vehicle electronic units before they have been verified by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in Borås.
This work started with the writing of a demand specification together with Kitron for a product PSQS, Power Supply Quality Simulator, which can generate some test pulses according to a standard for electronic units to Volvos vehicles.
A design proposal was developed with the help the demand specification and was verified with the help of simulations. All electric schematics was designed with the guide of the design proposal. The pulses realized in the works of this thesis are those which Kitron experienced that they have a need to test in their own premises and which are possible to generate with the means available. All work took place at Kitron in Jönköping, the restriction of the work has been the cost of components not to be to high as well as the finished product shall be easily managed.This study work resulted in a unit which is possible to produce a number of disturbances on the voltage feed to a unit under test. Some pulses have not been completely correct according to Volvos standard. There are large possibilities to further develop PSQS to a unit that follows Volvos standard and even other vehicle producer’s standards.
Remotely the system allows the user to effectively monitor and control the house/office appliances and equipments via the mobile phone set by sending commands in the form of SMS messages and receiving the appliances status.
The main concept behind the project is receiving the sent SMS and processing it further as required to perform several operations. The type of the operation to be performed depends on the nature of the SMS sent. The principle in which the project is based is fairly simple. First, the sent SMS is stored and polled from the receiver mobile station and then the required control signal is generated and sent to the intermediate hardware that we have designed according to the command received in form of the sent message.
We have selected a particular Nokia mobile set (Nokia 3310) for our project. The messages are sent from the mobile set that contain commands in written form which are then processed accordingly to perform the required task. A microcontroller based system has been proposed for our project. There are several terminologies that are used extensively throughout this project report.
GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications): It is a cellular communication standard. SMS (Short Message Service): It is a service available on most digital mobile phones that permit the sending of short messages (also known as text messaging service).
A Single-Stage Grid Connected Inverter Topology for Solar PV Systems With Maximum Power Point Tracking
The proposed topology has several desirable features such as better utilization of the PV array, higher efficiency, low cost and compact size. Further, due to the very nature of the proposed topology, the PV array appears as a floating source to the grid, thereby enhancing the overall safety of the system. A survey of the existing topologies, suitable for single-stage, grid connected PV applications, is carried out and a detailed comparison with the proposed topology is presented.
A complete steady-state analysis, including the design procedure and expressions for peak device stresses, is included. Necessary condition on the modulation index “M” for sinusoidal pulse width modulated control of the proposed inverter topology has also been derived for discontinuous conduction mode operation. All the analytical, simulation and experimental results are presented.
Electronics Info: Robotic Prison Guards in South Korea The Design of Mobile Control Car Security System
The present car alarm systems are still of no match to the well-equipped thieves. It is just a matter of seconds to break through the system.
This paper introduces and describes the design of mobile controlled car security system offering higher level of car security features. The mobile controlled car security is capable of providing an effective two-way communications between the alarm system and the car owner. This system is able to notify the car owner immediately when intrusion is detected.Additionally, the car owner can remotely control any of the car features anytime at anywhere via a phone call. Based on the GSM positioning concept, this system has the potential to provide car location information to assist in stolen vehicle recovery therefore providing enhancement over the conventional car alarm system.
For doing the next step we must find two things that are overall envelope of the sound and pitch information. The most important is the manipulation of the pitch information. For a successful morphing there must be a smooth pitching. The two pitches must match. After the process the frames is converted back into the waveform. During the process we may loses some information and it has to be re-estimated. The voice morphing contains many processes like sampling. The main steps are
- Preprocessing – It involves acquisition in discrete form and windowing
- Pitch analysis – This process is used for extracting the pitch. Then format the information’s in the speech signal
- Signal re-estimation
The overall architecture of the system is centered on the ATmega644 microcontroller. The acoustic sensor and keypad are inputs to the MCU, while the LCD, headphones, and MATLAB visualization tool are outputs. Communication with the Flash memory is bi-directional. Figure 2 shows an overview of the system high level design.
The MCU runs several software interfaces to support the various features of the digital stethoscope. The signal capturing interface uses the analog-to-digital converter to sample the acoustic sensor at 8 kHz. The real-time audio processing module modifies the measured signal based on user settings and outputs it to the 3.5 mm audio socket via pulse-width modulation. The user interface supports the detection and de-bouncing of keypad button presses as well as controls the LCD display to reflect the current state of the system. In addition, the user interface also outputs real-time or recorded data at 100 Hz to a MATLAB utility running on a separate PC for signal visualization and average heart rate calculations. The Flash interface includes a software library for SPI communication to read from and write data to the external Flash memory chip.