Piles are structures used to transfer loads from superstructure to the sub surface strata. When the subsurface stratum is water based or if we deal with a hydraulic structure, the piles are to be driven into water and under water strata. Piles used in underwater structures are often subjected to corrosion. There is no absolute way to eliminate all corrosion; but corrosion protection measures are employed to control the effect of corrosion. Corrosion protection can be in different ways according to the environment and other factors. Forms of corrosion protection include the use of inhibitors, surface treatments, coatings and sealants, cathodic protection and anodic protection. The control measures explained in this are Protective coatings, cathodic treatment and application of Fibre Re-inforced Polymer (FRP) Composites
Corrosion Mechanism Of Steel In Sea Water
On steel piling in seawater, the more chemically active surface areas (anodes) are metallically coupled through the piling itself to the less chemically active surface areas (cathodes) resulting in a flow of electricity and corrosion of the anodic areas. General surface roughening occurs when these local anodic and cathodic areas continually shift about randomly during the corrosion process. Sometimes these active local areas do not shift position end, therefore, the metal suffers localized attack and pitting occurs. In general, the depth of pitting is related to the ratio of the anodic sites to the area of cathodic site in contact with the electrolyte (seawater). The smaller the anode area relative to the cathode area, the deeper the pitting
Before deciding on the methods for control of corrosion to be applied, conceptual and feasibility studies have been carried out. Typically, corrosion management can be divided into three major phases.
Phase 1 of the program is the programmatic assessment of the project. This phase is the planning stage for a corrosion management program to take place. It initiates the program to be implemented on structures that are found to be under the threat of corrosion. For the planning stage, three main requirements are sought, namely the strategy, budget and schedule needed to overcome the problem raised from corrosion of reinforcement. This is seen as an important part for an effective management program as feasibility studies are normally conducted to determine the serviceability of the structure after treatment.
Phase 2 of the program involves physical assessment and actual remediation. Inspections for severity of corrosion are conducted in this phase to determine what strategy or methods are most suitable to be applied. Development of corrosion control strategy would present more option to the management program. Remedial work would be carried out once the proper strategy has been recognized.Phase 3 of the program mainly deals with future monitoring of the repaired structure. Currently and historically, most of the corrosion control programs are driven by response to incident or urgent need, rather than systematically identifying and managing the existing resources. This can be overcome by implementing internal or external monitoring system using current technology practiced in oil and gas industries