Bookmark and Share

Wednesday, 4 February 2009


Robotic Car is a miniature prototype car powered by batteries whose various movements can be control either manually or automatically, or the combination of both. Here the command is given through keyboard; it would have been better if we used IR remote control or something of that kind rather than using keyboard for commanding. However, by realizing the complexities we have made simple using keyboard.

Block diagram of the project:

Some photographs of this model:

Project Description:

Keyboard section:

There are six switches in this section. They are

1: turn left.

2: turn right.

3: stop.

4: about turn.

5: park left.

6: park right.

Circuit diagram of keyboard is shown bellow.

Car section:

There are many sub sections in this section. They are


We are using a 5V dc motor to drive the vehicle. The speed of the vehicle and its strength is controlled by the proper use of pulley. The rear wheel of the vehicle is connected to this motor through a pulley. This motor is meant for moving the vehicle both in forward and backward direction. Microcontroller (8051) controls the forward and backward movement of the vehicle in the following manner:

Here in the above circuit, T1, T2, T3, T4 are the NPN power transistor (2N3055). A0, A1, A2, A3 are the signals coming from the micro controller. With the specific combination of A0, A1, A2, A3 we can change the direction of rotation of motor as follows:

Case I:

When A0=high; A3=high; & A1=low; A2=low

The motor rotates in clockwise direction

Case II:

When A0=low; A3=low; & A1=high; A2=high

The motor rotates in anti-clockwise direction

Case III:

When A0=low; A3=low; A1=low; A2=low

The motor stops the rotation.

Stepper Motor:

A 5V dc Stepper motor is fixed at the front wheel lever directly. It enables the vehicle to rotate left or right through any angle. The electrical pulses generated from the micro controller directly control the movement of the stepper motor.

A stepper motor is an electromagnetic device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement.

Circuit diagram of keyboard is shown bellow. First 4 pins port 2 is connected to motor. Power transistors must be connected to drive the motor.

Transmitter and Receiver:

We are fitting three IR sensors along with the transmitter at the front of the vehicle in such an angle that the sensor will detect the signal only if certain obstacle is placed at the front of the vehicle at a distance of around 3 inches. This range of detection can be further adjusted by adjusting the amplitude of transmitter or by adjusting the angle of alignment between the transmitter and the sensor. All these sensors work independently and can sense the obstacle that comes at the front of the vehicle through different position independently. Thus with these three sensors, we are able to cover the entire frontal view of the vehicle at a distance of 3 inches. The circuit diagram of the transmitter and the receiver are given below:


Transmitter circuit is used to transmit the IR rays. The IR LED emit infrared light switch is put on in the transmitting unit. To generate IR signal 555 IC based astable multivibrator is used. Infrared LED is driven through transistor BC 177.


The receiving unit consists of a sensor and its associated circuitry, which detects IR pulses transmitted by IR-LED. As a result the monostable is triggered and a short pulse is applied to port 2.5 of 8951. Circuit diagram is shown below. Do the same circuit two more times and connect it into 6 and 7 of port 2.



Manual mode:

In manual mode, the vehicle can be commanded through a wireless microphone to

1: turn left.

2: turn right.

3: stop.

4: about turn.

5: park left.

6: park right.

Turn left:

On getting the command of turn left, the vehicle turns towards left with 30 degree and after 3sec; it comes back to the original position. The degree in which the vehicle rotates, and the timing of coming back to the original position can be further adjusted based on our desired.

Turn right:

Right turn is same as that of left turn except for the fact that on getting command it turns towards right. All the modifications those are valid for the left turn is also true in this case.


Once the vehicle gets the command for “stop” it remains in the idle state. There after its control is hand over to the beginning state.

About turn:

In about turn, the vehicle turns backward in two steps same as we did in our normal car. In first step the vehicle move only 90 degree and repeat the same in second step.

Park left:

On getting the command to park left, the vehicle parks on the left side of the road in a single step.

Park right:

Park right is same as that of park left, but here in this case, it parks towards the right side of the road.

You can also add two modes to the present design using two more switches. They are

Auto Mode:

In auto mode, the vehicle can be programmed to move at a particular place and park there. While moving, if any obstacle comes at the front of the vehicle, it will deviate its path automatically and come to the original path. The place where the vehicle is desired to move is the choice of the user; it can be either straight or bent path.

In our model, we have put three sensors at the front of the vehicle, so it is up to the user that, by what angle the vehicle should deviate. Further, it can be programmed on which side it should deviate, either left or right based on our desired. To alert the user that the vehicle is deviating an obstacle, a musical sound system is fitted in the vehicle, so that whenever it is deviating any obstacle, it will also play a music simultaneously.

Hybrid Mode:

It is the combination of both auto and manual mode. Here the vehicle can be commanded to move, to turn left or right. Further, while moving, if any obstacle comes on its path, it will deviate and come to its original path after deviating. However, if so happen that before coming to the original path, the sensor detects another obstacle; it will halt the movement of the vehicle, and play an alarm music as long as the obstacle is detected. The moment second obstacle is removed; the vehicle will continue its earlier execution.


  1. very cheap !in fact damn lame

  2. I have not checked in here for a while since I
    thought it was getting boring, but the

    last several posts are good quality so I guess I will add you back to my daily bloglist.

    You deserve it my friend :)
    my web site ::

  3. Thanks for some other informative website. Where else may just I
    get that kind of info written in such a

    perfect way? I've a venture that

    I am simply now operating on, and I've been on the glance out

    such info.
    Also visit my homepage :

  4. I simply wanted to write a quick comment so as to

    thank you for those superb facts you are placing here.
    My time consuming internet research has now been honored with reputable strategies to go over with my close friends.
    I 'd claim that many of us

    visitors are really fortunate to be in a great

    community with very many outstanding individuals with good solutions. I feel

    pretty happy to

    have come across your webpages and look forward to some more cool

    times reading here. Thanks again for

    Also visit my blog post ...

  5. Howdy! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be

    okay. I'm undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look forward to
    new updates.
    Feel free to surf my site -

  6. A person necessarily lend a hand to make

    significantly articles I might state. This is the very first time I

    frequented your web page and to this point? I surprised with the

    analysis you made to create this actual publish extraordinary.
    Excellent job!
    Here is my homepage

  7. wonderful post, very informative. I wonder why the other experts of

    this sector don't notice this. You must continue your writing. I'm sure,

    you've a huge readers' base already!
    Also see my web site -

  8. Hi! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?

    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due

    to no back up. Do you have any methods to stop hackers?
    Feel free to surf my blog ;

  9. hey there and thank you in your info - I have

    definitely picked up anything new from proper here.
    I did however expertise several technical issues using

    this site, since I skilled to reload the site a lot of
    times previous to I may just get it to load correctly.

    were wondering if your web hosting is OK? No longer that I'm complaining, however

    slow loading instances times will often affect your placement in google and could damage your high-

    quality score if advertising and ***********
    my website -

  10. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I find It truly useful & it helped

    me out much. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me.
    Also visit my web blog ::

  11. I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good.
    I do not know who you are

    but certainly you're going to a famous blogger if you are not already ;) Cheers!
    Here is my web page click through the following web site

  12. hello!,I love your writing so a lot! share we

    keep up a correspondence extra approximately your article

    on AOL? I need a specialist in this house to resolve my

    problem. Maybe that is you! Having a look ahead to

    look you.

    Here is my homepage ::
    my web site - new cars spain buying

  13. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually

    something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and extremely broad for

    me. I'm looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!
    Here is my webpage -

  14. Often times, womens vests have pockets and can be pulled over
    any kind of outfit. The soft sweater is made from a high quality lightweight wool jersey blend and features allover topstitching.
    'V' necks should be paired with a button down collared shirt, remembering to keep the shirt collar tucked in.

    Here is my web page :: blazer korea

  15. It is caused by the hormonal problems, weight gain, and many other factors.
    It contains natural ingredients like olive oil, jojoba oil, and other essential oils.
    The best way of dealing with cellulite & stretch marks ( is by choosing a treatment option
    and sticking to it.

    My blog; Stretch mark removal