AddThis

Bookmark and Share

Wednesday, 4 February 2009

60 Watt Into 8 Ohms Power Amplifier

Introduction

This amplifier does not claim to be "state of the art", and in fact the base design is now over 20 years old. It is a simple amp to build, uses commonly available parts and is stable and reliable. The design featured is a slight modification of an amp I originally designed many years ago, of which hundreds were built. Most were operated as small PA or instrument amps, but many also found their way into home hi-fi systems. The amp is capable of driving 4 Ohms, but it is starting to push the limits of the transistors, however, even when used at 4 Ohms, very few failures were encountered.


The Circuit

Note that there is no output short circuit protection, so if speaker leads are shorted while the amp is working (with signal), there is a very real risk of the transistors being destroyed. Since this amp was built commercially, the savings were worth the risk - most of these amps were installed in the speaker box, so shorting was not likely (unless the loudspeaker voice coil shorted as happened a few times). Because of the cost of the devices used (minimal), it is a cheap amp to fix even if you do manage to blow it up.

60 Watt Amplifier
Figure 1 - 60W Power Amplifier Original Circuit Diagram (Don't Use This Circuit!)

Basic specs on the amp are as follows

  • Input sensitivity for 60 W output - just under 1V (1V gives 66W)
  • Gain - 27dB
  • Frequency response (-3dB) - 10Hz to 23kHz @ 1W
  • Harmonic distortion @ 1kHz - 0.05% (maximum typical)
  • Open Loop Gain - 125dB (no load), 80dB (8 Ohm load)
  • Input Impedance - 22k Ohm
  • DC Offset - Less than 100mV (<>
  • Noise - <>
Changes made from the original design are ...
  • Reduced the value of the Class-A base resistor to 560 Ohm **
  • Increased the value of the bootstrap capacitor to 100uF
  • Reduced stabilisation caps to 100pF (they used to be 220pF)
  • Added the output inductor and damping resistor (see UPDATES)
** It is conceivable that with some transistors, the value of 560 Ohms may not be correct. If this is found, you might need to "tweak" this resistor to obtain minimum DC offset. If you really wanted to, you could even use a trimpot (2k), and adjust this for minimum DC offset. Best to wait until the temperature has stabilised first, but it won't change very much anyway.

Apart from these changes, the amp is pretty much original, and with a +/-35V (loaded voltage) supply as shown, will provide 70W into 8 Ohms quite happily. In its lifetime, many of the mods mentioned above were made anyway, since I could never find the circuit diagram when I needed it, so often made it up as I went along! It is a fair testament to the amp that all sorts of resistor and capacitor substitutions can be made, and it still works fine.

The noise and distortion figures are somewhat pessimistic - there is so little distortion at 1V (or 20V for that matter) that my distortion set has great difficulty in getting a readable measurement. The oscilloscope output indicates that most of what I see is noise - even integrating the output (my 'scope can do that) to eliminate the noise reveals very little at all.


07 Dec Update

I have had a few constructors comment on the quiescent current, which is somewhat higher than they expected. Indeed, my test amp (photo below) runs (ran) with a quiescent of about 350mA. This requires a fairly hefty heatsink to keep it cool, but mine is fine as long as it is not lying on the bench top. With little or no airflow, it gets hot.

I have carried out a few more experiments, and have a few values for you. The amp is intended to use 0.22 Ohm emitter resistors in the output stage. With these, Iq (quiescent current) is about 350mA at +/-35V supply.

Increasing the emitter resistance will reduce Iq, and with 0.5 Ohm resistors it drops to about 150mA. Although this reduces output power by a very small amount, the reduction is worthwhile from a thermal perspective. Measured distortion and other characteristics are unchanged. A tiny increase in output impedance might occur, but I did not test for this, and it will be far less than that of speaker leads anyway.

I also included a bias servo, using a pot and transistor. This was not mounted on the heatsink, since this would cause an instant negative thermal coefficient - as the amp gets hotter, Iq will fall, potentially so far that crossover distortion will occur. This is not a good thing, and I do not recommend it. The bias servo I used was done for convenience - I had a 20k trimpot to hand (well, a bag full actually), and the transistor is a standard BC549. I know its not elegant, and the values are not worked out properly, and ..., and, ... etc, but it works.

I then tested the amp with Iq from zero mA (crossover distortion was very evident) right up to the new maximum of 150mA - I left the 0.5 Ohm resistors in circuit. The circuit for the bias servo (actually the whole amp, with some of the other mods I have mentioned elsewhere) is shown in Figure 1a - notice that I left the diodes in circuit as a fail-safe, since the servo I used will go open circuit if the pot wiper becomes disconnected (I strongly suggest that you do the same). In practice this works extremely well, and I can set bias current to anything I like.

Figure 1a
Figure 1a - Modified Version Of 60W Power Amp

Changes from Figure 1

  • Zener removed, 2k2 and 4k7 resistors changed to single 12k
  • Removed inductor and bypass resistor from output
  • Added bias servo transistor and pot
  • Increased emitter resistors from 0.22 to 0.5 Ohms
Overall, these changes effect quiescent current and simplify the circuit a little. There are no discernible performance changes from the original. The variations I was able to chronicle are as follows :

I found that the crossover distortion is very low with only a few mA, and all but disappears at about 40mA, leaving a barely visible "glitch" on the oscilloscope channel monitoring the output of the distortion meter. (I always use one channel for the output signal, and the other is pretty much permanently connected to the distortion measuring set.) Further increases in Iq made very little difference, but overall I found that at about 100mA, the amp seems happiest (or maybe that was me - seeming happiest, that is).

Variations in supply voltage will have an effect on Iq as well. I hadn't actually considered this much (I have never had one of these amps self destruct, and normally don't even bother measuring the quiescent current). The variation is caused because the Class-A driver current is not derived from a true current source, but is a simple bootstrapped circuit. Since the current must change with voltage, so must the voltage across the diodes (or bias servo). At about 25 degrees C, I set Iq to 20mA with a supply voltage of +/-35V ....

Supply Voltage Quiescent Current
+/-35 V 20mA
+/-40 V 53mA
+/-45 V 78mA

Bias current also changes with temperature, so as the amp heats up, Iq will increase. This is not serious, and will only ever cause grief if the heatsink is too small. Such grief will ensue anyway in this case, regardless of whether the bias current is stable or not.

Please Note: One of the things you will read about on various web pages, is that distortion measurements are invalid, since they do not usually take into account the very "spiky" nature of crossover distortion, and simply average it so it looks (on paper) much better than it sounds. This denouncing activity is most common amongst Class-A enthusiasts. I cannot speak for others, but when I measure distortion I look at the residual signal from my meter on an oscilloscope. There are no distortion spikes evident in this design - the distortion is a smooth waveform with no part of the signal able to be misinterpreted by human or instrument.


Construction

I do not propose to provide constructional details for this amp. If you want to build it, a simple PCB could be made, or it can be built on "Veroboard" or similar. Layout is not especially critical, and in fact if the components are laid out on a board much as they are seen in the diagram, you should have no problems. 3 Amp fuses should be fitted to each supply rail - these will not prevent output transistors from failing with a shorted speaker lead, but they will prevent further damage (wiring melting, transformer burning out, PCB catching on fire, etc).

100uF 50V bypass capacitors should be installed on the board, as close as possible to the driver circuits. These may optionally be bypassed using 100nF polyester caps. As an indication of the stability of this amp, I have used it with 1 metre power supply leads with no on-board bypass caps whatsoever. Power is reduced because of the instantaneous peak currents causing voltage drop on the leads, but the amp remains completely stable. (Don't do this, because although the amp will work fine, too much power is lost in the leads.)

The input capacitor should be a polyester type. If an electrolytic is to be used, the positive end goes to the amplifier (there is about +230mV on the bases of the long tailed pair transistors).

When wiring, ensure that the feedback connection is taken from the speaker output terminal, immediately before the inductor. Any track which is carrying half-wave audio from one or the other power transistor resistors will cause distortion of the feedback signal, degrading sound quality.

The photo shows one of my test amps (built on a PCB I designed over 15 years ago for a bridge / stereo version - these are the ones that hundreds of were made). This is the amp all the tests were conducted on, and it will be noted that there is no output inductor. Please don't ask if I have any of the PCBs to sell, because I don't.

power amp
The Complete Amp (My Test Unit)


Power Supply

A suitable power supply is presented in the Project Pages. This will also be quite suited to any other power amp of similar specifications (such as the "New Improved" version of this one, P3A).


Passive Components
  • The resistor values are not too critical, but if 1/2W metal film resistors are used throughout, this will help to reduce noise.
  • The 0.5 Ohm resistors need to be 5W wirewound types.
  • I suggest that you do not use an inductor in the output. If you choose to do so, wind about 20 turns of 1mm diameter enamelled copper wire on a 20mm diameter former. This should be flat wound - if a layered coil is used, reduce the number of turns to about 12. You may choose to leave the inductor out of the circuit altogether - none were used when these amps were in production. (See updates)
  • If you must, use a 1 to 4.7 Ohm wirewound resistor for the inductor damping resistor - 5W should be fine.

Transistors
  • Input (long tailed pair) - BC559 or similar (low noise, PNP, 40V collector-emitter voltage rating)
  • Bias Servo - BC549 or equivalent
  • Class-A driver - BD139 or MJE340
  • Drivers - NPN - BD139 or MJE340
  • Drivers - PNP - BD140 or MJE350
  • Power - NPN - MJE3055, TIP3055 or 2N3055 (TO-3)
  • Power - PNP - MJE2955, TIP2955 or MJ2955 (TO-3)
  • Biasing diodes - 1N4001 as shown (do not use signal diodes, their voltage drop is too high, which will increase quiescent current to an unacceptably high value.)
Only the output transistors must be on a heatsink, which should have a thermal rating of no more than 0.5 degree Celsius per Watt for "normal" home listening, or half that if the amp is going to be pushed hard (PA or instrument amp, for example). If you really want to, a small "flag" type heatsink can be used for the drivers, but this is not necessary. The Class-A driver dissipates only about 1/4 Watt, while the power drivers vary. I have never used a heatsink on any of them.

The TIP2955/3055 have a lower thermal resistance than the MJE types, and are preferred for this reason. Other power transistors may be substituted, but it is up to you to determine their suitability. Aim for devices with a high fT (gain transition frequency), low thermal resistance, and good power ratings. I am using 200W TO-3 case devices in my own biamp system.


Figure 2- Output Transistors in Parallel

If you wish, additional output transistors may be connected in parallel to provide better gain at high current (reducing "gain droop"), and higher output current capacity. This will also provide lower transistor die operating temperatures, because of the effective doubling of case to heatsink contact area. Figure 2 shows the arrangement (one side only, the other is a mirror image).

Note that if transistors are paralleled, the emitter resistors must be used as shown to force current sharing. If these are ignored, one transistor will provide most of the current while the other does little or nothing. You may then be lulled into a false sense of security until the output stage blows up.

NOTE: Although the silicone pads now available are a less messy alternative to mica or Kapton washers and thermal grease, I still have my reservations about them. If transistors must be replaced, replace the washers as well, or the thermal resistance is likely to be too high if the old ones are re-used.


Powering Up

If you do not have a dual output bench power supply - Before power is first applied, temporarily install 22 Ohm 5 W wirewound "safety" resistors in place of the fuses. Do not connect the load at this time! When power is applied, check that the DC voltage at the output is less than 1V, and measure each supply rail. They will be different, because of the zener diode feed resistance, but both should be no less than about 20V. If widely different from the above, check all transistors for heating - if any device is hot, turn off the power immediately, then correct the mistake.

If you do have a suitable bench supply - This is much easier! Slowly advance the voltage until you have about +/- 20V, watching the supply current. If current suddenly starts to climb rapidly, and voltage stops increasing then something is wrong, otherwise, continue with testing. (Note: as the supply voltage is increased, the output voltage will increase - up to about 6V, then quickly drop to near 0V. This is normal.)

Once all appears to be well, connect a speaker load and signal source (still with the safety resistors installed), and check that suitable noises (such as music or tone) issue forth - keep the volume low, or the amp will distort badly with the resistors still there if you try to get too much power out of it.

If the amp has passed these tests, remove the safety resistors and re-install the fuses. Disconnect the speaker load, and turn the amp back on. Verify that the DC voltage at the speaker terminal does not exceed 100mV, and perform another "heat test" on all transistors and resistors. Turn off the power, and re-connect speaker and music source.

This amp is fairly well behaved for turn on, and should issue (at worst) the smallest click as power is applied. When power is removed, after about 5 seconds or so, there will normally be a low level thump - this is not dangerous to speakers, unless used in tri-amp and directly connected to the tweeters - DO NOT DO THIS - not with any amp. Always use a capacitor in series with tweeters (see Bi-Amplification, Some thoughts on Tri-Amping).

If you got this far, happy listening.


UPDATES:
  • 03 Apr 1999 - the quiescent current of my "bench test" version of this amp is about 300mA, which is quite high - higher than I remembered - so the amp will get fairly warm just sitting there with the full supply voltage. Also, if your supply is +/-40V unloaded, expect to see about 6V dropped across each safety resistor (22 Ohm) when initially powering up.
  • I also checked the distortion more thoroughly (which is hard, because its so low). There is no sign - at any power level - of the traditional "spikes" created by crossover distortion, just a -70dB smooth looking 3rd harmonic content. (When I say -70dB, I'm guessing a bit, because the levels are too low to measure accurately). Interestingly, there is almost no change when the load is connected or disconnected, which surprised me more than just a bit - a lot, actually! I was so suspicious that I shorted out one of the bias diodes - behold, nasty crossover spikes instantly abounded as expected. I have to conclude that distortion is pretty low then!
  • 05 April 1999 - The Bizarre Dept. - I also performed some additional tests with the output inductor in place - very interesting! Although the distortion is barely measurable without it, as soon as it is connected, crossover distortion becomes evident - I don't understand this, since it can only be seen at the speaker side of the inductor, and remains quite normal at the amp side. Any suggestions as to why this would happen are more than welcome, because it certainly doesn't make any sense to me! (nor to anyone else who has tried to figure this out)
  • 27 April 1999 - I had a think about how I normally measure distortion, and realised that I can actually use my oscilloscope instead of the meter - this means that I can use the averaging feature to get rid of the noise component. Although it was difficult to keep stable (my distortion meter has a little drift, normally this does not cause a problem), I managed to measure the distortion down to 0.0025% - and no, that is not a misprint. I also have a horrible feeling that most of this is from my oscillator (which is in dire need of a bit of non-routine maintenance - i.e. a rebuild).
  • I have experimented some with the Miller (dominant pole) capacitor, and substituted a 100pF polystyrene for the ceramic that was there before. I have no idea if it makes any real difference, but it sounds like a great idea, especially when you consider its importance in the circuit.
  • Also did some tests to see how well the amp behaves at lower voltages, and it works fine down to +/-12V, although it is a bit useless at this voltage because of the limited power - about 8 Watts. This brings into question why I ever bothered to use the zener diode (the original idea was to prevent supply hum from being injected into the LTP emitter circuit). Even at supply voltages so low that the zener has no effect, there is no supply hum injected into the signal, so feel free to leave it out of the circuit. You must adjust the series resistance of the "tail" to get 3mA, so with a +/- 35V supply, this works out at 12k.
  • 07 Dec 1999 - Fairly major update, and is included in detail above.
  • 06 Feb 2000 - Made a few small corrections to the text, and added info on higher powered transistors.

112 comments:

  1. Spot on with this write-up, I actually think this website wants

    rather more consideration. I’ll in all probability be
    again to read much more, thanks for that info.
    Here is my web blog http://www.jobsinspain.org

    ReplyDelete
  2. I'm usually to blogging and i actually recognize your content. The article has really peaks my interest. I'm going to
    bookmark your

    website and keep checking for new information.
    Also visit my weblog ; http://chefuality.blogspot.ru

    ReplyDelete
  3. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I'm impressed! Extremely

    helpful info specifically the last part :) I care for such info a lot. I was seeking this certain info for a very

    long time. Thank you and best of luck.
    Feel free to surf my web site ... www.illegalpropertyspain.com

    ReplyDelete
  4. Hi there! I'm at work browsing your blog from my new iphone

    4! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your

    posts! Keep up the excellent work!
    my page - www.elcheproperty.net

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hey there are using Wordpress for your site platform? I'm new to the

    blog world but I'm trying to get started and create my own.
    Do you require any coding

    expertise to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!
    Also visit my web site ; http://murciaproperty.net

    ReplyDelete
  6. Wonderful items from you, man. I have consider your stuff

    previous to and you're simply extremely

    excellent. I actually like what you have acquired right here,

    certainly like what you're saying and the way in which during which you are saying
    it. You're making

    it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it sensible. I can't wait to read far more from you.
    This is actually a

    great web site.
    Also visit my web blog :: http://www.murciaproperty.net

    ReplyDelete
  7. Wow, amazing blog layout! How long have you been
    blogging for?

    you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is
    great, let alone the content!
    My web site - Televisionspain.Net

    ReplyDelete
  8. I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice,
    keep it up! I'll go ahead

    and bookmark your website to come back in the future. All the best
    My homepage ... helge.at

    ReplyDelete
  9. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your blog?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content

    so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?
    my site > forum.palmpre-france.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. fantastic put up, very informative. I

    ponder why the other experts of this sector do not understand this.


    You must proceed your writing. I am sure, you have a huge readers'

    base already!
    Also visit my site ; autumnleaves-x.blogspot.ru

    ReplyDelete
  11. Good day! I know this is kind of off topic

    but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form?
    I'm using the same

    blog platform as yours and I'm having problems finding one?
    Thanks a lot!
    Also visit my homepage :: hovumc.nl

    ReplyDelete
  12. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon
    your website and in accession

    capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I’ll

    be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently
    rapidly.
    Feel free to visit my web blog ; 4 Letter words ending in zin

    ReplyDelete
  13. Along with everything which

    appears to be developing inside this specific subject

    matter, your opinions happen to be relatively radical. Having said

    that, I beg your pardon, but I can not subscribe to your

    whole theory, all be it radical none the

    less. It appears to me that your remarks

    are not totally validated and in

    reality you are yourself not even

    totally certain of your point. In any

    event I did take pleasure in reading it.
    Also see my web site - Thespainforum.com

    ReplyDelete
  14. Great beat ! I wish to apprentice at the same time as you
    amend your site, how can i subscribe for a blog site?
    The account aided me a applicable deal.
    I had been tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast provided bright

    transparent idea
    Also see my site > http://wiki.bydgoskie.org/index.php?title=Online_Classified_Ads_-_Total_Well_Being_Buying_Through_Classifieds

    ReplyDelete
  15. Very well written post. It will be

    useful to anyone who utilizes it, including yours truly :
    ).

    Keep doing what you are doing - i will definitely read more posts.
    Here is my webpage http://www.ostersundsflygklubb.nu

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hello there, I found your blog by way of Google

    whilst looking for a comparable matter, your site got here up, it looks


    great. I've bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Also visit my page :: http://artimess.pixnet.net/blog/post/21306298

    ReplyDelete
  17. An attention-grabbing discussion is worth comment.
    I

    believe that it is best to write extra on this topic, it won't be a taboo subject however typically

    individuals are not sufficient to speak on such topics. To the next. Cheers
    Also see my site > 10 ten places to visit in spain

    ReplyDelete
  18. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future

    and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I may just I want to recommend you few attention-

    grabbing things or advice. Perhaps you can write subsequent articles

    regarding this article. I want to learn even more things about it!
    Also visit my webpage http://www.borealisgeopower.com

    ReplyDelete
  19. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wished to mention

    that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts.

    In any case I will be subscribing for your feed and I hope

    you write again very soon!
    My webpage :: essentialweb.asia

    ReplyDelete
  20. I loved as much as you'll receive carried out right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored

    material stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an edginess

    over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly

    the same nearly very often inside case you shield this increase.
    my page: www.comune.reggio-calabria.it

    ReplyDelete
  21. You made some nice points there. I looked on the internet
    for the topic and found most persons will consent with

    your site.
    Also visit my blog post - curledupwithabook.wordpress.com

    ReplyDelete
  22. I'm extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your

    weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice

    quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one these days..
    My web site :: pythonjoe.blogspot.fr

    ReplyDelete
  23. Greetings! Quick question that's totally off

    topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My web site looks weird when

    browsing from my iphone 4. I'm trying to find a theme or plugin that


    might be able to fix this issue. If you have any recommendations, please share.


    With thanks!
    my page - sda.resonategroup.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. We're a bunch of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community.

    Your website provided us with valuable information to work

    on. You have performed a formidable process and our entire

    community will probably be grateful to

    you.
    My web site mythos-draconis.de

    ReplyDelete
  25. Howdy! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group?
    There's a lot of people that I think would really enjoy your content.

    Please let me know. Thank you

    My web-site: herocopia.com
    Here is my site ... Holidays in Spain

    ReplyDelete
  26. excellent points altogether, you simply gained a

    brand new reader. What would you suggest in regards to
    your

    post that you made a few days in the past? Any

    positive?

    Feel free to surf to my weblog :: http://lenoirmemorial.org/index.php/member/9539/
    Feel free to visit my page apartment for sale Alicante

    ReplyDelete
  27. I am constantly invstigating online for

    ideas that can assist me. Thanks!

    my blog - dolphin.huatandm.com:8001
    Check out my blog post ; villas for deal Elche

    ReplyDelete
  28. I absolutely love your blog and find the

    majority of your post's to be just what I'm

    looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content for you

    personally? I wouldn't mind producing

    a post or elaborating on a number of the subjects you write

    in relation to here. Again, awesome

    blog!

    Have a look at my web page ... http://www.eldredgelibrary.org/member/4685/
    My page ... villa for sale

    ReplyDelete
  29. You made some nice points there. I looked on the internet for the topic and found most individuals will go along with
    with

    your site.

    Review my website :: http://s14-death-squad.punbb-hosting.com/profile.php?id=4520
    Also visit my blog post :: carp fishing

    ReplyDelete
  30. I simply desired to thank you so much once more.

    I am not sure the things that I could possibly have undertaken without those recommendations provided
    by you over

    my field. It truly was a troublesome

    crisis for me, nevertheless taking note of the skilled way you treated it

    forced me to cry over

    happiness. I am just happier for your support and

    in addition expect

    you comprehend what an amazing job you are always doing

    teaching many people via your website. Most

    likely you haven't met any of us.

    My blog; friendfella.com
    Feel free to surf my weblog ; Costa Blanca Spain weather March

    ReplyDelete
  31. Hello, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to “return the favor”.
    I

    am attempting to find things to enhance my website!
    I suppose its ok to use some

    of your ideas!!

    Feel free to visit my web site ... sda.resonategroup.com
    Feel free to visit my homepage flats to lease in Dolores

    ReplyDelete
  32. Greetings! I've been reading your site for some time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Humble Texas! Just wanted to mention

    keep up the great job!

    Also visit my website wiki.dataflow.ws
    Have a look at my website : cheapest car hire spain forum Almería

    ReplyDelete
  33. Woah! I'm really loving the template/theme of this site. It's simple, yet effective.
    A

    lot of times it's very hard to get that "perfect balance" between superb

    usability and appearance. I must say you have done a fantastic job with this. In addition,

    the blog loads extremely fast for me on Opera. Superb Blog!

    My web page :: http://rwww.radabg.com
    Stop by my page : cheap phone calls to america

    ReplyDelete
  34. I have to convey my respect for your kindness giving support

    to those who absolutely need help on the question.

    Your personal commitment to passing the solution up and down had been remarkably

    valuable and has continuously enabled employees just like
    me to arrive at their dreams. Your amazing interesting information
    can mean this much to me and much more to my peers. Warm regards; from all of us.


    My web-site :: http://mayores.uji.es/eduwiki/index.php?title=Invest_Your_Holidays_In_Spain_At_The_Forgotten_Haven_Of_Spanish_Costa_Brava
    Look at my page Attractions

    ReplyDelete
  35. I've been browsing online greater than 3 hours as of late, yet I never discovered any fascinating article like yours. It is beautiful price enough for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made just right content material as you probably did, the internet will probably be a lot more helpful than ever before.

    Feel free to visit my page :: gladyssuarez.com
    Also visit my web site ; do-it-yourself solar powered pool heater

    ReplyDelete
  36. I am not sure where you are getting your info, but great topic.
    I needs to spend some

    time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for great

    info I was looking for this information for my mission.


    Take a look at my web blog - http://kd8jhj.blogspot.ru
    My site: clicker model clk1

    ReplyDelete
  37. I used to be suggested this website by my cousin.


    I am not positive whether or not this post is

    written through him as nobody else realize

    such certain

    approximately my problem. You're incredible!

    Thanks!

    Feel free to surf to my website :: http://topseobacklinks.com/search/http://www.londoncalling.nl/?attachment_id=495
    Here is my website - skirtini swimwear

    ReplyDelete
  38. I’ve been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or

    weblog posts on this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this website.
    Reading this information So i am

    glad to convey that I have a very just right uncanny feeling I found
    out just what I needed. I so much

    definitely will

    make certain to don’t overlook this site
    and give it a look regularly.

    my web-site ... elevrett.elev.no
    Also visit my web blog - Costa Blanca weather conditions July

    ReplyDelete
  39. Once I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when
    new feedback are added-

    checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four emails with
    the identical comment.

    Is there any means you possibly can remove me

    from that service? Thanks!

    Stop by my site ... eternitylinks.com
    my web page: bad credit no credit loans

    ReplyDelete
  40. As a Newbie, I am constantly exploring online for articles that can

    help me. Thank you

    my web-site; www.cortesisland.bc.ca
    Feel free to visit my blog post ... Spain weather conditions March

    ReplyDelete
  41. Hi there, simply changed into aware of your blog

    through Google, and located that it is truly informative.
    I’m going to

    be careful for brussels. I will appreciate in

    case you continue this in future. A lot of people can
    be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

    My webpage - vdr.spaghettilinux.org
    My webpage: carp sport fishing holidays

    ReplyDelete
  42. Admiring the dedication you put into your

    website and detailed information you offer. It's great to come

    across a blog every once in a while that isn't the same old
    rehashed material. Excellent read! I've bookmarked your site and I'm adding your


    RSS feeds to my Google account.

    Also visit my page; http://chambesel.wahost.org/wiki/index.php?title=The_Beauty_And_Valuation_Of_A_Spain_Vacation
    my web site: news spain today Los Christianos

    ReplyDelete
  43. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession

    capital to assert that I acquire in fact enjoyed
    account your blog posts. Anyway I will

    be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.


    Also visit my web blog: berrypecker.360bookmarks.com
    Feel free to visit my page : weather spain in march

    ReplyDelete
  44. Wonderful site. Lots of helpful

    info here. I am sending it to some buddies ans additionally

    sharing in delicious. And of course, thanks for your


    sweat!
    Feel free to surf my web page ... dexterseasn7episod11.xitti.com

    ReplyDelete
  45. Somebody essentially help to make seriously posts I would state.
    This is the very

    first time I frequented your web page and thus far?

    I amazed with the research you made to

    make this particular publish amazing. Fantastic

    job!
    Stop by my page ; roseindia.net

    ReplyDelete
  46. Admiring the dedication you put into your

    site and in depth information you provide. It's good to come

    across a blog every once in a while that isn't the same old rehashed material.

    Wonderful read! I've saved your site and I'm including your

    RSS feeds to my Google account.
    My page - Asdtoscoligure.altervista.org

    ReplyDelete
  47. Generally I do not read post on blogs, but I would like to say
    that this

    write-up very forced me to try and do it! Your writing style has been amazed
    me. Thanks, very nice

    article.
    Feel free to visit my blog post : khanewal-fun.blogspot.fr

    ReplyDelete
  48. I think this is one of the most vital information for me.
    And i'm glad

    reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The web site style is

    ideal, the articles is really great : D. Good job, cheers
    My website - http://wiki.science.ru.nl

    ReplyDelete
  49. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism

    or copyright violation? My website has a lot of completely unique content

    I've either created myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up

    all over the internet without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help reduce content from being stolen? I'd truly
    appreciate it.
    Stop by my web site - Dea25.Com.ar

    ReplyDelete
  50. F*ckin’ remarkable things here. I am very satisfied to look your post.

    Thanks so much and i am looking

    forward to contact you. Will you please drop me a mail?
    Here is my blog - blogspot.fr

    ReplyDelete
  51. Hi my friend! I wish to say that this post is awesome, nice
    written and include

    approximately all significant infos. I’d like to see more
    posts like this.
    Also see my page :: www.eaglerocks.com

    ReplyDelete
  52. I used to be more than happy to search out this web-site.
    I wanted to thanks in your time for this wonderful learn!
    ! I definitely enjoying each

    little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to
    take a look at new stuff you blog post.
    Check out my weblog :: HTTP://wiki.ip7.free.fr/index.php?title=Utilisateur:DeeannaGonzales99

    ReplyDelete
  53. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it.
    Look advanced to far added

    agreeable from you! However, how could we communicate?
    Here is my web site : http://apnilink.wordpress.com/

    ReplyDelete
  54. Undeniably imagine that which you said. Your

    favorite justification appeared to be on the web the

    simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get irked at

    the same time as other folks think about concerns that they plainly don't understand about. You

    managed to hit the nail upon the highest as smartly as defined out the

    whole thing without having side-effects , other folks can take a signal. Will likely be again to get more. Thank you
    Also see my website > http://Essentialweb.asia

    ReplyDelete
  55. What’s Taking place i'm new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It

    absolutely useful and it has aided me out loads. I am hoping to give a

    contribution & help other customers like its aided me. Great

    job.
    My web-site :: http://sangharime.com/

    ReplyDelete
  56. Fantastic site. Plenty of useful

    information here. I am sending it to a few friends ans also sharing in delicious.
    And of

    course, thanks for your sweat!
    My blog ; http://batavi.wiki.iceshop.nl

    ReplyDelete
  57. naturally like your web-site but you have to check the

    spelling on several of your posts. A number of them
    are rife with spelling problems

    and I find it very troublesome to tell the truth nevertheless I will definitely come


    back again.
    my web site: alanchow76.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  58. My brother suggested I might like this blog.
    He was entirely right. This post

    truly made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this information!

    Thanks!
    My web-site :: mypinoyvideos.net

    ReplyDelete
  59. Keep working ,splendid job!
    Also see my website :: wiki.escuelab.org

    ReplyDelete
  60. Hello this is kind of of off topic but I was

    wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML.

    I'm starting a blog soon but have

    no coding experience so I wanted to get advice from someone with

    experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!
    Feel free to surf my weblog ; comphonia.smffy.com

    ReplyDelete
  61. Thanks for another wonderful article. Where else could

    anybody get that kind of information in such an ideal way of writing?
    I have a

    presentation next week, and I'm on the look for such info.
    My weblog ; http://ayuda.juuntos.net/index.php?title=Usuario:ShericeRamos73

    ReplyDelete
  62. It’s really a cool and helpful piece of info. I’m glad that you
    simply shared this useful info with us. Please stay

    us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.
    My web blog :: http://bbs.ysong.org

    ReplyDelete
  63. Hmm is anyone else encountering problems with
    the images on this blog loading? I'm trying

    to find out if its a problem on my end or if it's the blog.
    Any feed-back would be greatly appreciated.
    Feel free to visit my page - familiekunde-brussel.be

    ReplyDelete
  64. Does your blog have a contact page? I'm having trouble locating it but, I'd like
    to

    shoot you an email. I've got some ideas for your blog you

    might be interested in hearing. Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it develop over time.
    Here is my blog post ilancat.pixnet.net

    ReplyDelete
  65. I have been browsing online greater than three hours lately, but I never found any fascinating article like yours.
    It’s pretty worth sufficient for me. In my

    opinion, if all web owners and bloggers made excellent content material as you probably did, the internet shall be much more helpful than
    ever before.
    Also visit my web site : ugu.pl

    ReplyDelete
  66. Even during these hardship there really are a huge
    number of charge cards inundating the market and even
    in the event you use a poor credit rating, you should
    still be able eighteen, you are a small amount of them payday loans online lenders are hungry
    on your business and they are going to happily provide
    you with a quote online in seconds.

    ReplyDelete
  67. Great site. Plenty of helpful

    information here. I’m sending it to a few buddies ans additionally

    sharing in delicious. And naturally, thank you on your


    effort!
    Here is my webpage ... comenius.digitalies.net

    ReplyDelete
  68. I wish to point out my respect for your kindness supporting individuals that absolutely need guidance on your concept.
    Your personal commitment to getting the solution all
    over had become pretty

    informative and have truly made those much like me
    to attain their goals. Your interesting key points denotes so much to me and somewhat
    more to my office colleagues. Many thanks; from each one of us.
    My website: web.firstkoreanchurch.org

    ReplyDelete
  69. I’m impressed, I need to say. Really hardly ever do I encounter a

    weblog that’s both educative and entertaining, and let me tell you, you've hit the nail on the head. Your

    concept is outstanding; the difficulty is one thing that not

    enough persons are talking intelligently about. I'm very

    comfortable that I stumbled across

    this in my search for one thing relating to this.
    Here is my site ... awarrener.blogspot.ru

    ReplyDelete
  70. There are some fascinating deadlines in this article however I don’t know if I see all of them center to heart.
    There may be some validity however I'll take hold opinion till I look into it

    further. Good article , thanks and we want extra! Added to FeedBurner as

    nicely
    Also visit my site : http://www.bmu.fr/forum/profile.php?id=49565

    ReplyDelete
  71. Thanks a lot for sharing this with all of us you really recognise what
    you're talking approximately! Bookmarked. Kindly

    also discuss with my website =). We

    will have a link exchange

    arrangement between us!
    Here is my webpage :: omansky.blogspot.fr

    ReplyDelete
  72. Hi, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar one and i
    was just

    wondering if you get a lot of spam responses? If so how do
    you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can recommend?
    I get so much lately it's driving me mad so any assistance is very much appreciated.
    Take a look at my web blog : www.anonimfile.org

    ReplyDelete
  73. Appreciating the time and energy you put into your

    blog and in depth information you offer. It's great to come

    across a blog every once in a while that isn't the same outdated rehashed material.
    Great read! I've bookmarked your site and I'm adding your

    RSS feeds to my Google account.
    Also visit my homepage - Raymond-angelo.blogspot.fr

    ReplyDelete
  74. My husband and i ended up being thrilled Edward managed to finish off


    his studies out of the ideas he gained using your site.
    It's not at all simplistic just to continually be offering methods which other folks may have been selling. We really acknowledge we now have the writer

    to be grateful to because of that. The most important explanations

    you've made, the simple site

    navigation, the friendships you will give support to create -
    it's all superb, and it's really leading our son in addition to us imagine

    that this theme is thrilling, which is certainly

    extremely fundamental. Thank you for the whole lot!
    my website - http://migrants.jinbo.net/index.php?mid=freeboard&search_target=tag&search_keyword=혁명&document_srl=7982

    ReplyDelete
  75. advertising and ***********

    with Adwords. Anyway I am including this RSS to my email and could glance out

    for much more of your respective exciting content. Ensure

    that you replace this again very soon..
    My web page : wiki.liberalapartiet.se

    ReplyDelete
  76. Hi there! I'm at work browsing your blog from my new apple iphone! Just wanted to say I love reading your blog and look forward to all your

    posts! Carry on the great work!
    Also visit my web site ... impactteendrivers.org

    ReplyDelete
  77. Wow! Thank you! I always needed to write on my blog something like that.
    Can I implement a part of your post to my site?
    Visit my site ... blogspot.de

    ReplyDelete
  78. It's appropriate time to make a few plans for the future

    and it is time to be happy. I've learn this post and if I may I desire to suggest you some attention-

    grabbing things or suggestions. Maybe you can write subsequent articles

    referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!
    Visit my web site : http://yxjwmit.fubjnmmd.sncvfv.forum.mythem.es/bugles/fluiscono

    ReplyDelete
  79. It's appropriate time to make a few plans for the future

    and it is time to be happy. I've learn this post and if I may I desire to suggest you some
    attention-

    grabbing things or suggestions. Maybe you can write subsequent articles

    referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!
    My site - http://yxjwmit.fubjnmmd.sncvfv.forum.mythem.es/bugles/fluiscono

    ReplyDelete
  80. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I'm planning to start my own site

    soon but I'm a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like

    Wordpress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I'm completely

    overwhelmed .. Any tips? Thank

    you!
    Take a look at my homepage ... https://dev3.Lorea.org/

    ReplyDelete
  81. Wonderful goods from you, man. I have have in mind your stuff

    previous to and you're just too

    excellent. I really like what you've got right here,

    certainly like what you are stating and the best way by

    which you assert it. You're making

    it enjoyable and you still take care of to stay it smart. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is actually a

    terrific site.
    Also visit my site :: www.gupiao.com.tw

    ReplyDelete
  82. Generally I don't learn article on blogs, but I wish to

    say that this write-up very forced me to try and do so! Your

    writing taste has been amazed me. Thanks, very great post.

    Feel free to surf to my homepage :: www.shbab.twhed.com

    ReplyDelete
  83. I do enjoy the way you have framed this particular issue and it does provide me some fodder for thought.
    On the other hand, through just what I

    have witnessed, I only

    wish when the actual feed-back stack on that people today stay

    on issue and don't embark on a tirade

    regarding some other news du jour. Still, thank you for this

    fantastic piece and though I do not necessarily go along with this in totality, I regard

    your viewpoint.

    Here is my web page: http://Www.bizserviceonline.com

    ReplyDelete
  84. I’ll immediately grab your rss as I can't find your email subscription

    link or e-newsletter service. Do you have any? Please let me know so that I

    could subscribe. Thanks.

    Also visit my site Gratis-community.at

    ReplyDelete
  85. I just could not go away your web site before suggesting that

    I really loved the standard information an individual

    provide in your visitors? Is going to be again often to investigate

    cross-check new posts

    my web-site :: keywest-group.com

    ReplyDelete
  86. Does your site have a contact page? I'm having a tough time locating it but, I'd like to

    send you an e-mail. I've got some suggestions for your blog you

    might be interested in hearing. Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it

    expand over time.

    Here is my web site - mymilitarysocial.com

    ReplyDelete
  87. Howdy this is kind of of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to
    manually code with HTML. I'm starting a blog soon but have

    no coding skills so I wanted to get advice from someone with

    experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!

    Feel free to visit my homepage: endeavourdigital.net

    ReplyDelete
  88. You completed various nice points there. I did a search on the


    issue and found a good number of

    folks will have the same opinion with your blog.


    Also visit my web-site; http://www.literatum.co/blog/view/138700/how-to-choose-a-property-in-spain-registation-and-tax-implications

    ReplyDelete
  89. Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it
    to my 4 year

    old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She put
    the shell to her ear and

    screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear.
    She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is

    completely off topic but I had to tell someone!

    Visit my web page; http://finnfoto.framedreality.com/members/eviaporter666/activity/115164

    ReplyDelete
  90. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your
    blog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?

    Either way keep up the nice

    quality writing, it is rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.
    .

    my web site :: com.ua

    ReplyDelete
  91. F*ckin’ amazing things here. I am very glad to see your post.
    Thanks a lot

    and i'm looking forward to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a mail?

    Review my web page :: http://social.zarya-chern.ru/

    ReplyDelete
  92. I am usually to blogging and i actually recognize
    your content. The article has actually peaks my interest. I am going to bookmark your
    site and keep checking for brand spanking new information.


    Also visit my web page friendsofpersia.ahoowebdesign.com

    ReplyDelete
  93. Hi would you mind letting me know which hosting company you're

    using? I've loaded your blog in 3 different browsers and
    I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most.
    Can you recommend a good

    internet hosting provider at a honest price? Thank you, I appreciate it!



    My page: Qrchains.com

    ReplyDelete
  94. In this awesome pattern of things you actually receive an
    A with regard to effort. Exactly

    where you actually misplaced me ended up being on your facts.

    You know, as

    the maxim goes, details make or break the argument.. And it could not be

    much more true at this point. Having said that, let me inform you exactly what

    did do the job. Your text

    can be very

    convincing and that is most likely the reason why

    I am taking the effort to opine. I do not really make it a regular habit of

    doing that. Next, while I can

    certainly see the leaps in reason you make, I am definitely not sure of how you appear to

    unite the details which in turn produce

    the conclusion. For now I will, no doubt

    yield to your issue however hope in the future you connect the dots better.


    Here is my web-site: www.phormiga.net

    ReplyDelete
  95. Hello would you mind sharing which blog platform you're using?

    I'm going to start my own blog soon but I'm having a tough time

    deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is

    because your design seems different then most blogs and I'm looking for
    something unique. P.S My apologies for
    getting off-topic but I had to ask!

    My website www.liguegay.com

    ReplyDelete
  96. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my weblog so i came to
    “return the favor”.I'm trying to find things to improve my site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

    Feel free to visit my site http://Yoshnet.uz/members/lindabennett1974/

    ReplyDelete
  97. Lovely blog! I am loving it!! Will come back again.
    I am bookmarking your feeds also.

    My blog post - http://www.seolinkads.com/tag/npr+foie+gras+spain,+mk6+climate

    ReplyDelete
  98. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you

    hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I'm looking to design my own blog and

    would like to know where u got this from. thanks a lot

    Look into my homepage ... http://uni-sv.org/

    ReplyDelete
  99. Hiya, I'm really glad I've found this info. Today bloggers publish just

    about gossips and web and this is actually irritating. A good blog with
    exciting content, this is what I need. Thanks for

    keeping this website, I will be visiting it.
    Do you do newsletters? Cant

    find it.

    Also visit my weblog - sharetolink.vn

    ReplyDelete
  100. Great goods from you, man. I have be aware your stuff

    previous to and you are just extremely great.
    I actually like what you have received right here,

    certainly like what you are stating and the way through which
    you assert it. You are making

    it enjoyable and you continue to take care of to stay it sensible.
    I cant wait to read much more from you. This is actually a

    great site.

    Also visit my website mycorresp.com

    ReplyDelete
  101. you are actually a good webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible.
    It seems that you

    are doing any unique trick. Also, The contents are masterpiece.
    you've performed a fantastic process on this matter!

    Look at my website; vyhid-e.org.ua

    ReplyDelete
  102. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but
    your blogs really nice, keep it up! I'll go ahead

    and bookmark your site to come back in the future. Cheers

    Also visit my web blog; Translate.Lorea.org

    ReplyDelete
  103. My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.

    I have always disliked the

    idea because of the expenses. But he's tryiong none the less. I've been
    using WordPress on a variety of websites for about a year and
    am anxious about

    switching to another platform. I have heard very good things about blogengine.
    net. Is

    there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it?
    Any help would be really appreciated!

    Feel free to surf to my web site http://Timothyotoole.com

    ReplyDelete
  104. I discovered your blog web site on google and
    check a couple

    of of your early posts. Continue to maintain up the very good operate.
    I just additional up your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader.

    Looking for forward to reading extra from you

    afterward!…

    Also visit my weblog razere.com

    ReplyDelete
  105. Would you be excited by exchanging

    hyperlinks?

    Here is my page - www.baypartyscene.com

    ReplyDelete
  106. This design is wicked! You certainly know how to

    keep a reader amused. Between your wit and your videos, I
    was almost moved to start my own blog (well,

    almost...HaHa!) Excellent job. I really enjoyed what
    you had to say, and more than

    that, how you presented it. Too cool!

    my website; test.airwebs.co.uk

    ReplyDelete
  107. You should take part in a contest for one of the best sites on the internet.
    I most certainly will highly recommend this web site!

    my web-site; latest celeb news

    ReplyDelete
  108. Everything is very open with a precise explanation of the issues.
    It was definitely informative. Your website is very useful.

    Thanks for sharing!

    Visit my web page :: news of the day

    ReplyDelete
  109. Great info. Lucky me I ran across your website by chance (stumbleupon).
    I have book marked it for later!

    Here is my homepage ... Louis Vuitton Bags

    ReplyDelete
  110. hello there and thank you for your info – I have certainly picked up anything new from right here.
    I did however expertise some technical issues using this website, as I experienced to reload the site lots
    of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
    I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK? Not that I'm complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will often affect your placement in
    google and can damage your high-quality score if advertising and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I'm adding this RSS to my email and could look out
    for a lot more of your respective intriguing content. Make sure you update
    this again very soon.

    Also visit my webpage - garcinia cambogia dr oz youtube (li264-168.members.linode.com)

    ReplyDelete

There was an error in this gadget