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Saturday, 25 March 2017

Automated Solar Grass Cutter

The fully automated solar grass cutter is a fully automated grass cutting robotic vehicle powered by solar energy that also avoids obstacles and is capable of fully automated grass cutting without the need of any human interaction. The system uses 6V batteries to power the vehicle movement motors as well as the grass cutter motor. We also use a solar panel to charge the battery so that there is no need of charging it externally. The grass cutter and vehicle motors are interfaced to an 8051 family microcontroller that controls the working of all the motors. It is also interfaced to an ultrasonic sensor for object detection. The microcontroller moves the vehicle motors in forward direction in case no obstacle is detected. On obstacle detection the ultrasonic sensor monitors it and the microcontroller thus stops the grass cuter motor to avoid any damage to the object/human/animal whatever it is. Microcontroller then turns the robotic as long as it gets clear of the object and then moves the grass cutter in forward direction again.
Hardware Specifications
    • 8051 Family Microcontroller
    • Vehicle Body
    • Grass Cutting Blade
    • Solar Panel
    • Motor Driver IC
    • DC Motors
    • Ultrasonic Sensor
    • Robotic Body
    • Capacitors
    • Resistors
    • Voltage Regulator
    • Crystal
    • Led’s
Software Specifications
  • Keil µVision IDE
  • MC Programming Language: Embedded C


Block Diagram

Automatic Irrigation System on Sensing Soil Moisture Content │Smart Irrigation System


In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important. The advantage of using this method is to reduce human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation.

The project uses an 8051 series microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture condition of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is achieved by using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller.

Once the controller receives this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for operating the water pump. An LCD display is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display status of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made by using two stiff metallic rods inserted into the field at a distance. Connections from the metallic rods are interfaced to the control unit.

The concept in future can be enhanced by integrating GSM technology, such that whenever the water pump switches ON/OFF, an SMS is delivered to the concerned person regarding the status of the pump. We can also control the pump through SMS.

Robotic CPR Machine

 Continuing with our "robots saving lives" theme, check out the robotic CPR machine that a Staffordshire, UK ambulance service has put in 100 of its ambulances. The Daily Mail says, "In only 20 seconds, the machine can be ready to perform compressions on a sick patient, which maximises their chances of survival." The machine can keep up chest compressions for as long as necessary by using compressed air and pumps.


Railway Track Fault Detection

Here we propose an innovative approach to detect railway track crack as this system detects crack based on image processing. Many image preprocessing steps is used to detect railway track crack. As image is prone to noise. System converts image to grayscale image and uses filtering to remove noise from image. Noise removal helps to detect crack more accurately. Image luminous level is increased and image is converted to binary image. This helps system to detect only crack and helps to remove other unwanted objects. Image once converted to binary image, holes are filled by using image processing method this helps to reject all smaller objects which are not required for crack detection. Intensity value is used for accuracy purpose. Blob analysis method is used to detect large blobs. System detects crack based on number of connected components. System detects crack based on number of blobs involved and mentions whether crack exist or not. Using bounding box functionality, system displays rectangular box around the blob. This system used during railway track inspection. The proposed system is able to detect deeper cracks with 80% success rate and minor cracks with 50-60% accuracy                                                                                                            

     Ultrasonic detection is the method used. When the vehicle detects a crack, it sends a signal to the control room. While it is on the track, the device does not hinder movement of trains. When a train arrives, the device, which uses a pneumatic system, shrinks. The detector helps view the cracks on the track and its GPS system allows locating the vehicle.                                                                                               
1. Automatic Broken Track Detection Using LED-LDR Assembly

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5. Download – International Journal of Advanced Technology

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Monday, 20 March 2017

Energy Meter Reading Over Internet

e conventional energy meter reading system may cause low accuracy and low efficiency. This project, energy meter reading over internet facilitates the display of units consumed and cost over the internet (in the form of chart and gauge).


The project block diagram is shown in the above figure which consists of various blocks such as microcontroller, energy meter, LDR, load, LCD display, GSM modem, and power supply block. The digital energy meter used in this project consists of blinking LED (for 1unit it flashes 3200 times) which is interfaced with 8051 microcontroller through LDR. Thus, the LDR generates an interrupt for every LED blink and is fed to microcontroller. The microcontroller takes the reading and displays the same over LCD interfaced with microcontroller.

IOT Based Home Automation

IOT or internet of things is an upcoming technology that allows us to control hardware devices through the internet. Here we propose to use IOT in order to control home appliances, thus automating modern homes through the internet. This system uses three loads to demonstrate as house lighting and a fan. Our user friendly interface allows a user to easily control these home appliances through the internet. For this system we use an AVR family microcontroller. This microcontroller is interfaced with a wifi modem to get user commands over the internet. Also we have an LCD display to display system status. Relays are used to switch loads. The entire system is powered by a 12 V transformer. After receiving user commands over the internet, microcontroller processes these instructions to operate these loads accordingly and display the system status on an LCD display. Thus this system allows for efficient home automation over the internet.
The purpose of this project is to remote monitoring and control of the Digital Energy Meter. This system enables the Electricity Department to read the meter readings regularly without the person visiting inside each house. This can be achieved by the use of Microcontroller unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent (non-volatile) memory location. This system also makes use of a RF
Transceiver for transmitting the readings of Energy Meter. RF Communication ranges in between 30 KHz to 300 GHz. RF communication works by creating electromagnetic waves at a source and being able to pick up those electromagnetic waves at a particular destination. These electromagnetic waves travel through the air at near the speed of light. The wavelength of an electromagnetic signal is inversely proportional to the frequency; the higher the frequency, the shorter the wavelength. RF transceiver has both transmitter and receiver section with it. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Hand held device. The receiver end comprises of RF Transceiver, which receives the data from the transmitter. The data received at the receiver end is fed to the microcontroller present at the receiving end. The microcontroller at the receiving end is provided with a LCD. The readings received is processed and displayed on the LCD. The Microcontroller is programmed using Embedded C language.

 
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