Bookmark and Share

Monday, 11 October 2010

Laser Communication System

This is a simple Laser communication system. It can transmit and receive signal from any audio device.Communication distance is few meters. All components are not critical. Transistor 2N2222 may be on the coolrib. Laser diode is from laser pointer.

Insect Repellent Circuit

Repell those repugnant insects from your Garden this Summer with this insect repellent circuit. Designed by Graham Maynard the circuitry consists of a phase locked loop (CMOS 4047) wired as a 22KHz oscillator. The output is amplified by a pair of complimentary output transistors and drives a Motorola 3.25 inch Piezo. Current drain is around 120mA so an external power supply is recommended.

The piezo used was a standard 85mm square Motorola Horn, Maplin part number WF09K or WF55K. These are rated +/-3dB to 28kHz

On-line Analytical Processing (OLAP)


The term On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) was coined by E.F. Codd in 1993 to refer to a type of application that allows a user to interactively analyze data. An OLAP system is often contrasted to an OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) system that focuses on processing transaction such as orders, invoices or general ledger transactions. Before the term OLAP was, coined, these systems were often referred to as Decision Support Systems.
OLAP is now acknowledged as a key technology for successful management in the 90's.It describes a class of applications that require multidimensional analysis of business data.

OLAP systems enable managers and analysts to rapidly and easily examine key performance data and

perform powerful comparison and trend analyses, even on very large data volumes. They can be used in a wide variety of business areas, including sales and marketing analysis, financial reporting, quality tracking, profitability analysis, manpower and pricing applications, and many others.

OLAP technology is being used in an increasingly wide range of applications. The most common are sales and marketing analysis; financial reporting and consolidation; and budgeting and planning. Increasingly, however OLAP is being used for applications such as product profitability and pricing analysis; activity based costing, manpower planning; quality analysis, in fact for any management system that requires a flexible, top down view of an organization.
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a method of analyzing data in a multidimensional format, often across multiple time periods, with the aim of uncovering the business information concealed within the data'- OLAP enables business users to gain an insight into the business through interactive analysis of different views of the business data that have been built up from the operational systems. This approach facilitates a more intuitive and meaningful analysis of business information and assists in identifying important business trends.

OLAP is often confused with Data Warehousing. OLAP is not a data warehousing, methodology, however it is an integral part of a data warehousing solution. OLAP comes in many different shades, depending on the underlying database structure and the location of the majority of the analytical processing. Thus, the term OLAP has different meanings depending on the specific combination of these variables. This white paper examines the different options to support OLAP. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of each and recommends the analytical tasks for which each is most suitable.

OLAP provides the facility to analyze I the data held within the data warehouse in a flexible manner. It is an integral component of a successful data warehouse solution; it is not in itself a data warehousing methodology or system. However, the term OLAP has different meanings for different people, as there are many variants of OLAP. This article attempts to put the different OLAP scenarios into context.

OLAP can be defined as the process of converting raw data into business information through multi-dimensional analysis. This enables analysts to identify business strengths and weaknesses, business trends and the underlying causes of these trends. It provides an insight into the business through the interactive analysis of different views of business information that have been built up from raw operating data which reflect the business users understanding of the business

Neon Desklamp

This circuit will power a 6 inch 4 Watt fluorescent tube off a 12 volt supply, consuming 300 mA. It may also be powered by a suitably rated universal AC/DC adapter. Advantages of the design are: good light, low power consumption, and readily available stock parts.

The circuit is based on IC1, which is a 555 timer IC in astable mode. IC1's current output is amplified by TR1, and the voltage at the collector is stepped up by T1, a mains to 6-0-6 V transformer. Heat-sinks are advised for TR1 and T1.

Before applying power, VR1 should be advanced to a full 5 K. While power consumption is monitored with a multimeter, VR1 should be turned back slowly until power consumption rises to 300 mA maximum. The fluorescent tube should now shine brightly. Power consumption should not exceed 300 mA, or the circuit may be destroyed.

Should a universal AC/DC adapter be used at a later stage, constructors are advised to repeat the setup procedure with VR1, since the voltage of such adapters is unstable and may destroy the circuit. Constructors should be aware that a high voltage is present at the transformer primary, which could deliver a nasty shock.

Electromagnetic Field Detector

This circuit is sensitive to low frequency electromagnetic radiation and will detect for example hidden wiring or the field that encompasses a transformer. Pickup is by a radial type inductor, used as a probe which responds well to low frequency changing magnetic and electric fields. Ordinary headphones are used to for detection. The field that surrounds a transformer is heard as a 50 or 60Hz buzz. The circuit is below:-

I threaded a length of screened cable through an old pen tube and soldered the ends to a radial type can inductor. I used 1mH. The inductor fitted snugly into the pen tube. The opposite end of the cable connects to the input of the op-amp. Any op-amp should work here, possibly better results may be achieved with a low noise FET type such as the LF351. The 2M2 potentiometer acts as a gain control and the output is a pair of headphones. Stereo types can be used if they are wired as mono. I used an 8 ohm type, but the circuit should work equally well with higher impedance types. The probe (shown below) may be connected via screened cable and a 3.5mm stereo plug and socket.

pen probe
The sensitivity of this circuit is good. Mains wiring buried an inch in plaster can be detected with precision. A small load on the electric supply is all that is needed; a 20 watt desk lamp or similar will suffice. The hum field surrounding a transformer can be detected oat over 7 inches. Domestic appliances such as videos and alarm clocks all produce interference which can be heard with the probe. The electric field surrounding a loudspeaker or earpiece can also be heard. Try lifting a telephone and place the probe near the earpiece. A telephone pickup coil can be used in place of the inductor if desired. I will make an improved version of this circuit with a meter output later.

Temperature Monitor

A simple op-amp circuit that will trigger a relay when a preset temperature is reached. Please note that there is no hysteresis in this circuit, so that if the temperature changes rapidly, then the relay may switch rapidly.

This circuit uses an ordinary NTC thermistor with a resistance of 47k at room temperature. A suitable part fromMaplin Electronics is FX42V. The circuit is set in balance by adjusting the the 47k potentiometer. Any change in temperature will alter the balance of the circuit, the output of the op-amp will change and energize the relay. Swapping the position of the thermistor and 47k resistor makes a cold or frost alarm.

At room temperature (25 degrees Celsius) a 47k NTC thermistor resistance is approximately 47k. The non-inverting op-amp input will then be roughly half the supply voltage, adjusting the 47k pot should allow the relay to close or remain open. To calibrate the device, the thermistor ideally needs to be at the required operating temperature. If this is for example, a hot water tank, then the resistance will decrease, one way to do this is use a multimeter on the resistance scale, read the thermistors resistance and then set the preset so that the circuit triggers at this temperature.

Please note that if the temperature then falls, the relay will de-energize. If the environment temperatures changes rapidly, then the relay may chatter, as there is no hysteresis in this circuit.

Hysteresis, allows a small amount of "backlash" to be tolerated. With a circuit employing hysteresis, there will be no relay chatter and the circuit will trigger at a defined temperature and require a different temperature to return to the normal state. Hysteresis can be applied to the circuit using feedback, try a 1Meg resistor between op-amp output, pin 6 and the non-inverting input pin 2 to give the circuit hysteresis.

Without offset null adjustment, the output of the 741 IC will be around 2 Volts (quiescent) swinging to nearly full supply when triggered. The 4.7k and 1k resistor form a potential divder so that under quiescent conditions the transistor will be off. Quiescent or steady state means no signal, or in this case (when the temperature does not cause the output to swing to full voltage).



As more and more audiovisual information becomes available from many sources around the world, many people would like to use this information for various purposes. This challenging situation led to the need for a solution that quickly and efficiently searches for and/or filters various types of multimedia material that's interesting to the user.
For example, finding information by rich-spoken queries, hand-drawn images, and humming improves the user-friendliness of computer systems and finally addresses what most people have been expecting from computers. For professionals, a new generation of applications will enable high-quality information search and retrieval.

For example, TV program producers can search with

"laser-like precision" for occurrences of famous events or references to certain people, stored in thousands of hours of audiovisual records, in order to collect material for a program. This will reduce program production time and increase the quality of its content.
MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard, (to be defined by September 2001), that addresses how humans expect to interact with computer systems, since it develops rich descriptions that reflect those expectations.

The Moving Pictures Experts Group abbreviated MPEG is part of the International Standards Organization (ISO), and defines standards for digital video and digital audio. The primal task of this group was to develop a format to play back video and audio in real time from a CD. Meanwhile the demands have raised and beside the CD the DVD needs to be supported as well as transmission equipment like satellites and networks. All this operational uses are covered by a broad selection of standards. Well known are the standards MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and MPEG-7.

Each standard provides levels and profiles to support special applications in an optimized way.
It's clearly much more fun to develop multimedia content than to index it. The amount of multimedia content available -- in digital archives, on the World Wide Web, in broadcast data streams and in personal and professional databases -- is growing out of control. But this enthusiasm has led to increasing difficulties in accessing, identifying and managing such resources due to their volume and complexity and a lack of adequate indexing standards. The large number of recently funded DLI-2 projects related to the resource discovery of different media types, including music, speech, video and images, indicates an acknowledgement of this problem and the importance of this field of research for digital libraries.

MPEG-7 is being developed by the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) a working group of ISO/IEC. Unlike the preceding MPEG standards (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4) which have mainly addressed coded representation of audio-visual content, MPEG-7 focuses on representing information about the content, not the content itself.
The goal of the MPEG-7 standard, formally called the "Multimedia Content Description Interface", is to provide a rich set of standardized tools to describe multimedia content.

Lightning Detectors

Lightning Detectors

Beat Balance Metal Detector

A Beat Balance Metal Detector made from discrete components.

Various embodiments of the BB metal detector have been published, and it has been widely described in the press as a new genre. Instead of using a search and a reference oscillator as with BFO, or Tx and Rx coils as with IB, it uses two transmitters or search oscillators with IB-style coil overlap. The frequencies of the two oscillators are then mixed in similar fashion to BFO, to produce an audible heterodyne. On the surface of it, this design would seem to represent little more than a twinned BFO metal detector. However, what makes it different above all else, and significantly increases its range, is that each coil modifies the frequency of the adjacent oscillator through mutual coupling. This introduces the "balance" that is present in an IB metal detector, and boosts sensitivity well beyond that of BFO. Since the concept borrows from both BFO and IB, I have given a nod to each of these by naming it a Beat Balance Metal Detector, or BB for short.

Signal Tracer and Injector

A simple test circuit to fault find audio and radio equipment. Can be used to inject a square wave signal, rich in harmonics, or used with headphones as an audio tracer.

signal tracer

A single pole double throw sitch is used to switch between inject and trace modes. The diagram is drawn in trace mode, the earpiece being connected to the collector of the last transistor. Both transistors are wired as emitter followers, providing high gain. DC blocking is provided by the 1n capacitor at the probe end, and the two stages are capacitively coupled.

when the switch is thrown the opposite way (to the blue dot) both transistors are wired as an astable square wave generator. This provides enough harmonics from audio up to several hundred kilohertz and is useful for testing AM radio Receivers.

The Circuit on Veroboard
Below is the actual signal generator built on Veroboard by one of Circuit Exchange International viewers from Holland. Special thanks to Henry for his pictures.

Output Injector Waveform
Henry has also kindly provided on oscillogram on the injector in action, this is shown below.

The fast switch on time of the transistors produces the switching spike which is rich in harmonics.

DNA chips


DNA chips also known as micro arrays are very significant technological development in molecular biology and are perhaps most efficient tool available for functional genomics today. An evident from the name micro array essentially consists of an array of either Oligonucleotides or cDNA fixed on a substrate. There has been an explosion of information in the field of genomics in the last five years. Genomes of several organisms have been fully sequenced. The next step necessarily involves the analysis of comparative expression levels of various genes and to identify all the possible variations of sequence present in each of the gene or in the noncording regulatory regions obtained from a particular population. Handling such large volumes of data requires techniques which necessitate miniaturization and a massive scale parallelism. Hence the DNA chip comes in to the picture.

Researchers such as those at the University of Alaska Fairbanks' (UAF) Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB) and the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) seek to understand how organisms deal with the demands of their natural environment-as shown by the discovery of many remarkable adaptations that organisms have acquired living in the extremes of Alaska. Many of these adaptations have significant biomedical relevance in areas such as stroke, cardiovascular disease, and physiological stress. Somehow, our wild counterparts have adapted to severe environmental demands over long periods of time. Simultaneous to this research, scientists are also investigating the molecular changes that can be observed in humans as a result of their environment, such as through smoking or exposure to contaminants.

This push in research has resulted in the integration with life science research of approaches from many fields, including engineering, physics, mathematics, and computer science. One of the most well-known results of this is the Human Genome Project. Through this project, researchers * were able to design instruments capable of performing many different types of molecular measurements so that statistically significant and large scale sampling of these molecules could be achieved. Now, biomedical research is producing data that show researchers that things are not always where they expected them to be, while at the same time researchers are at a rapidly expanding phase of discovery and analysis of large, highly repeatable measurements of complex molecular systems.

One of the more important and generally applicable tools that has emerged from this type of research is called DNA micro arrays, or DNA chip technology This technology uses the fundamentals of Watson and Crick base-pairing along with hybridization to customize applications of DNA micro arrays to simultaneously interrogate a large number of genetic loci (those locations on the DNA molecules that have differing biological roles). The result of this type of analysis is that experiments that once tool ten years in thousands of laboratories can now be accomplished with a small number of experiments in just one laboratory.

24 Hour Timer

These two circuits are multi-range timers offering periods of up to 24 hours and beyond. Both are essentially the same. The main difference is that when the time runs out, Version 1 energizes the relay and Version 2 de-energizes it. The first uses less power while the timer is running; and the second uses less power after the timer stops. Pick the one that best suits your application.

24 Hour Mk1
24 hour Mk2

The Cmos 4060 is a 14 bit binary counter with a built in oscillator. The oscillator consists of the two inverters connected to Pins 9, 10 & 11; and its frequency is set by R3, R4 & C3.The green Led flashes while the oscillator is running: and the IC counts the number of oscillations. Although it's a 14 bit counter, not all of the bits are accessible. Those that can be reached are shown on the drawing.

By adjusting the frequency of the oscillator you can set the length of time it takes for any given output to go high. This output then switches the transistor; which in turn operates the relay. At the same time, D1 stops the count by disabling the oscillator. Ideally C3 should be non-polarized; but a regular electrolytic will work, provided it doesn't leak too badly in the reverse direction. Alternatively, you can simulate a non-polarized 10uF capacitor by connecting two 22uF capacitors back to back (as shown).

Using "Trial and Error" to set a long time period would be very tedious. A better solution is to use the Setup tables provided; and calculate the time required for Pin 7 to go high. The Setup tables on both schematics are interchangeable. They're just two different ways of expressing the same equation.

For example, if you want a period of 9 Hours, the Range table shows that you can use the output at Pin 2. You need Pin 2 to go high after 9 x 60 x 60 = 32 400 seconds. The Setup table tells you to divide this by 512; giving about 63 seconds. Adjust R4 so that the Yellow LED lights 63 seconds after power is applied. This will give an output at Pin 2 after about 9 Hours.

The Support Material for the timers includes a detailed circuit description - parts lists - a step-by-step guide to construction - and more. A suitable Veroboard layout for each version is shown below:

layout mk1
layout mk2

The timer was designed for a 12-volt supply. However, provided a suitable relay is used, the circuit will work at anything from 5 to 15-volts. Applying power starts the timer. It can be reset at any time by a brief interruption of the power supply. The reset button is optional; but it should NOT be used during setup. The time it takes for the Yellow LED to light MUST be measured from the moment power is applied. Although R1, R2 and the two LEDs help with the setup, they are not necessary to the operation of the timer. If you want to reduce the power consumption, disconnect them once you've completed the setup. If you need a longer period than 24-hours, increase the value of C3.


  1. Pushover analysis – cyclic loading, deterioration effect in RC Moment Frames in pushover analysis
  2. Rehabilitation – Evaluation of drift distribution
  3. Analysis of large dynamic structure in environment industry
  4. Theoretical study on High frequency fatigue behavior of concrete
  5. Seismic analysis of interlocking blocks in walls
  6. Estimation of marine salts behavior around the bridge structures
  7. A comparative study on durability of concrete tunnels undertaken in AP irrigation projects
  8. Prefabricated multistory structure, exposure to engineering seismicity
  9. Shape optimization of Reinforced underground tunnels
  10. Properties of Fiber Cement Boards for building partitions
  11. Behavior of RC Structures subjected to blasting
  12. The use of green materials in the construction of buildings
  13. Finite element model for double composite beam
  14. A new composite element for FRP Reinforced Concrete Slab
  15. Effect of shear lag on anchor bolt tension in a base plate
  16. Elastic plastic bending, load carrying capacity of steel members
  17. FE Analysis of lateral buckling of a plate curved in nature
  18. Green energy and indoor technologies for smart buildings
  19. Building environmental assessment methodology
  20. Numerical study on strengthening of composite bridges
  21. Strengthening effect for RC member under negative bending
  22. Effect of negative Poisson’s ratio on bending of RC member
  23. Macroeconomic cause within the life cycle of bridges
  24. Long term deflections of long span bridges
  25. Structural damage detection in plates using wavelet theories (transforms)

Gate Alarm

Figure 1 represents a cheap and simple Gate Alarm, that is intended to run off a small universal AC-DC power supply.

IC1a is a fast oscillator, and IC1b a slow oscillator, which are combined through IC1c to emit a high pip-pip-pip warning sound when a gate (or window, etc.) is opened. The circuit is intended not so much to sound like a siren or warning device, but rather to give the impression: "You have been noticed." R1 and D1 may be omitted, and the value of R2 perhaps reduced, to make the Gate Alarm sound more like a warning device. VR1 adjusts the frequency of the sound emitted.

IC1d is a timer which causes the Gate Alarm to emit some 20 to 30 further pips after the gate has been closed again, before it falls silent, as if to say: "I'm more clever than a simple on-off device." Piezo disk S1 may be replaced with a LED if desired, the LED being wired in series with a 1K resistor.

Figure 2 shows how an ordinary reed switch may be converted to close (a "normally closed" switch) when the gate is opened. A continuity tester makes the work easy. Note that many reed switches are delicate, and therefore wires which are soldered to the reed switch should not be flexed at all near the switch. Other types of switches, such as microswitches, may also be used



Information has become a commodity in today's world, and protecting that information has become mission critical. The Internet has helped push this information age forward. Popular websites process so much information, that any type of slowdown or downtime can mean the loss of millions of dollars. Clearly, just a bunch of hard disks won't be able to cut it anymore. So Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks (RAID) was developed to increase the performance and reliability of data storage by spreading data across multiple drives. RAID technology has grown and evolved throughout the years to meet these ever-growing demands for speed and data security.

A technique was developed to provide speed, reliability, and increased storage capacity using multiple disks, rather than single disk solutions. RAID takes multiple hard drives and allows them to be used as one large hard drive with benefits depending on the scheme or level of RAID being used. The better the RAID implementation, the more expensive it is. There is no one best RAID implementation. Some implementations are better than others depending upon the actual application. It used to be that RAID was only available in expensive server systems. However, with the advent of inexpensive RAID controllers, it seems it has pretty much reached the mainstream market.

The Array And Raid Controller Concept:
A drive array is a collection of hard disk drives that are grouped together. When we talk about RAID, there is often a distinction between physical drives and arrays and logical drives and arrays. Physical arrays can be divided or grouped together to form one or more logical arrays. These logical arrays can be divided into logical drives that the operating system sees. The logical drives are treated as single hard drives and can be partitioned and formatted accordingly.

The RAID controller is what manages how the data is stored and accessed across the physical and logical arrays. It ensures that the operating system sees the logical drives only and need not worry about managing the underlying schema. As far as the system is concerned, it is dealing with regular hard drives. A RAID controller's functions can be implemented in hardware or software. Hardware implementations are better for RAID levels that require large amounts of calculations. With today's incredibly fast processors, software RAID implementations are more feasible, but the CPU still gets bogged-down with large amounts of I/O.

The basic concepts made use of in RAID are:
.Exclusive OR

Mirroring involves having two copies of the same data on separate hard drives or drive arrays. So the data is effectively mirrored on another drive. The system writes data simultaneously to both hard drives. This is one of the two data redundancy methods used in RAID to protect from data loss. The benefit is that when one hard drive or array fails, the system can still continue to operate since there are two copies of data. Downtime is minimal and data recovery is relatively simple. All you need to do is rebuild the data from good copy.
A raid controller writes the same data blocks to each mirrored drive. This means that each drive or array has the same information in it. We can add another level of complexity by introducing yet another technique called striping. If we have one striped array we can mirror the array at the same time on the second striped array. To set up mirroring the number of drives will have to be in the power of two.

Digital Audio Broadcasting


Digital audio broadcasting, DAB, is the most fundamental advancement in radio technology since that introduction of FM stereo radio. It gives listeners interference - free reception of CD quality sound, easy to use radios, and the potential for wider listening choice through many additional stations and services.

DAB is a reliable multi service digital broadcasting system for reception by mobile, portable and fixed receivers with a simple, non-directional antenna. It can be operated at any frequency from 30 MHz to 36Hz for mobile reception (higher for fixed reception) and may be used on terrestrial, satellite, hybrid (satellite with complementary terrestrial) and cable broadcast networks.

DAB system is a rugged, high spectrum and power efficient sound and data broadcasting system. It uses advanced digital audio compression techniques (MPEG 1 Audio layer II and MPEG 2 Audio Layer II) to achieve a spectrum efficiency equivalent to or higher than that of conventional FM radio.
The efficiency of use of spectrum is increased by a special feature called Single. Frequency Network (SFN). A broadcast network can be extended virtually without limit a operating all transmitters on the same radio frequency.


DAB has been under development since 1981 of the Institute Fur Rundfunktechnik (IRT) and since 1987 as part of a European Research Project (EUREKA-147).

" In 1987 the Eureka-147 consoritium was founded. It's aim was to develop and define the digital broadcast system, which later became known as DAB.
" In 1988 the first equipment was assembled for mobile demonstration at the Geneva WARC conference.
" By 1990, a small number of test receivers was manufactured. They has a size of 120 dm3
" In 1992, the frequencies of the L and S - band were allocated to DAB on a world wide basis.
" From mid 1993 the third generation receivers, widely used for test purposes had a size of about 25 dm3, were developed.
" The fourth generation JESSI DAB based test receivers had a size of about 3 dm3.

1995 the first consumer - type DAB receivers, developed for use in pilot projects, were presented at the IFA in Berlin.

1. CAN protocol implementation.
2. MODBUS protocol implementation on RS485.
3. Home automation (AC/DC) using RF module.
5. SOLAR ENERGY meter.
6. Robot control using TV remote.
7. Robotic Arm manipulator.
8. Access Control system using i-Botton.(1-WIRE PROTOCOL)
9. Electronic Eye with Security Dial up(Digital IC Based).
10. Microcontroller Based Fire Monitoring System in Petrochemical industries
11. SPI based voice recording system.
12. MMC card interface.
13. EEPROM/FLASH Programmer.
14. Digital IC tester.
15. Moving message Display.
16. Automation of Car Parking.
17. BATTERY CHARGER using microcontroller.
18. PC AT-Keyboard interface with microcontroller.
19. Auto BAUDRATE detection for microcontroller.
20. Interfacing GRAPHIC LCD with microcontroller.
21. Automation of Toll Gate.
22. Automation of Rail Gate.
23. Automatic Water Gardening system.
24. Wireless DATA Communication through IR.
25. Design of LOCK-IN-AMPLIFIER.
26. USB-UART Bridge.
27. Microcontroller based Digital POWER ENERGY METER.
28. Maximum Power point tracking using SOLAR PV Panels.
29. PREPAID ELECTRICITY billing system.
30. Interfacing COLOR SENSOR with microcontroller.
32. Designing pH meter using microcontroller.
33. SMS keypad interfacing with microcontroller.
34. Digital Power Supply with microcontroller.
35. Home automation (AC/DC) using TV remote.
36. Frequency meter.
37. Digital Thermometer.
38. Interfacing RTC with microcontroller.
39. Serial data transmission & Reception between two controllers.
40. Data Entry system with password security.
41. Remotely monitoring Parameters through GSM module.
42. Digital fare meter for transport vehicles.
43. Robot control using RF module.
44. Data Acquisition system.
45. Data Logger system.
46. SMS transmitting using RF modules.
47. Data Communication using RF modules.
48. Real Time Clock Control application.
49. Temperature monitoring and control.
50. Moisture measurement and control.
51. Home automation (AC/DC) using GSM module.
52. DC motor RPM measurement.
53. DC motor Speed measurement using tachometer.
54. Bi directional DC motor speed control.
55. Stepper motor control using microcontroller.
56. Robot control using PC interface.
57. H.V.A.C.
58. Intruder Alarm System.
59. Water level monitoring system.
60. Design of INVERTER using microcontroller.
61. Sharp IR Range Finder.
62. Traffic Light System.
63. Voltage, Current & Resistance measurement.
64. Remote Valve Operation using GSM module.
65. Remote Valve Operation using RF Modules.
66. Digital Clock with snooze facility.
67. Auto Timer using microcontroller.
68. BABY WARMER system with microcontroller.
69. BCD UP DOWN Counters using Controller.
70. Interfacing GSM module with microcontroller.
71. Anti-theft Alarm system.
72. Watch Dog Timer.
73. Solar Panel interface.
74. Light Sensing Robot.
75. Dallas 1-wire Temperature sensor interface.
76. Smoke detection using microcontroller.
77. Intelligent object counting system.
78. SPI protocol based seven segment led display interface.
79. Home automation (AC/DC) using PC interface.
80. Season based automatic Streetlights switching.
81. Viscosity of liquid Measurement.
82. Clap sensing Robot.
83. Touch sensing application.
84. Automatic Water tank filling.
85. DO measurement and control using microcontroller.
86. Interfacing GPS Receiver with microcontroller.
87. PC based message-scrolling display.
88. Voice IC APR9600 interface with microcontroller.
89. FUNCTION GENERTAOR using microcontroller.
90. STROBOSCOPE effect based RPM measurement.
91. VEHICLE TRACKING system with GPS & GSM.
92. Digital Capacitance meter.
93 Industrial fault indication systems with over voltage, over current, over temperature using analog to digital (ADC) converters.

94 Data Acquisition system using RF.

95. Speed control of DC motor using Pulse width Modulation technique (Speed sensor).

96. Speed control of DC motor with pulse
97. Automatic street power saving system with light dependent resistor.

98. Temperature dependent dc fan speed control using thermistor
99. Password operated industrial machinery control (wireless, more than 8 machineries)

100. Six channel Petrochemical Fire Monitoring & Control Station.

101. PC Based data acquisition system using (MAX232).

102. Robot direction controlling using RF Communication .Remote monitoring Any Alarm on PC Using Radio Communication.
103. Home Automation through PC.

104. Autonomous Robot.

105. Design A.M.F.A.T.S (Auto main failure & automatic transfer switch).

106. Automatic Control of rail Gate.

107. PT-100 Temperature Controller

108. LCD display driver with demo board Software.

109. Highly Flexible Keypad Alarm.

110. DC motor Speed control.

111. Automatic dish antenna position controller.

112. Liquid level control.

113. Light intensity control system

114. Automatic flow control system.

115. Level measurement using load cell.

116. DC circuit breaker.

117. Voltage monitor and control.

118. Current monitor and control.

119 Seven segment display driver with demo Board & Software.

120. Stepper motor driver with demo Board & Software.

121. Digital Lock.

122 Electronic Eye (8051 Based)

123. Electronic Eye 8051 Based With Event Logging On PC.

124. Micro controller based energy meter.

125.8051 General Purpose Project Board.

125. Eight channel ADC Board (0809) with Software.

126. Single supply Temperature monitoring using thermistor.

127. Single supply Temperature monitoring using thermocouple.

128. Automatic Bottle filling System.

129. Temperature analyzing system for industrial control.

130. Industrial Protection system using Temperature, Smoke sensors and
Light Dependent Resistor.

131. Super intelligent robot using smoke sensors and light dependent resistor.

132. PC based Synchronizing and speed controlling of dc motor (Wireless).

133. Electrical apparatus control system in a plant using R

133. Electrical apparatus control system in a plant using RF wireless communication.

134. Wireless Power System using RF Communication.

135. Wireless digital code lock with a status display.

136. Microcontroller based Vehicle speed acquisition system.

137. Hi-Tech wireless Equipment controlling system.

138. Robot direction controlling using RF communication.

139. Remote Monitoring Any Alarm on PC Using Radio Communication.

140. Eight Channel Data Logger (89c51 Based).

141. Control System for Modern House.

142. Wireless Security System.

143. Data Transferring Between two robots using Radio frequency Communication.

144. Home / Office Security System (Safeguard).

145. Real-time 8Ch Wireless Data Logger.

146. DC Motor Speed Control using Radio Frequency.

147. Wireless data acquisition.

148. Channel RF based remote control.

149. Line Follower ROBO.

150. Microcontroller Enabled PC Based industrial protection.

151. Mobile or landline Telephone based industrial protection.

152. GSM based advanced security systems.

153. Real-Time Industrial process control& monitoring Using GSM Phone.

154. GSM based parameter monitoring system using MAX232 Serial
Communication. and analog to digital converters.

155. GSM Controlled Door Latch Opener with Security Dial up with Changeable Telephone Number (8051 Based).

156. Home Automation Using GSM.

157. Electronic code locking using GSM.

158. Speed Control of motor through SMS (GSM).

159. Closed loop motor Speed controller using cell phone.

160.8051 based code Lock with Security Telephone Dialer.

161. Real-Time Industrial process controlling & monitoring using GSM

162. Miniature Real-Time Controller (6-channel outputs) with PC Interface and I2C protocol.

163. Programmable Timer with Programmable on/off Delays.

164. Attendance Register Logger (PIC Based).

165. Energy meter with prepaid card.

166. Voice operated home appliances control.

167. Automatic room light controller with visi
167. Automatic room light controller with visitor counter (IR sensor).

168. Channel IR based remote control.

169. Communicating single master with many slaves by using SPI protocol.

170. Inter integrate communication protocol(I2C).

171. PC to PC communication with IR.

172. Automatic meter reading system using RF.

173. Industrial Automation system using RF.

174. Dimmer lights automation system.

175. GSM based Building Automation.

176. Implementation of Mobile Based HI-Tech door Locking System.

177. Design a Factory alarm system.

178. Stepper Motor Controller.

179. Temperature control and monitoring.

180. Solar Tracking.

181. Voltage logger.

182. 8-Channel data acquisition system.

183. DC Motor Control.

184. Speed Detection.

185. D.C power Supply.

186.8051 Based Code Lock with Security Telephone Dialer.
187. Mobile or landline Telephone based industrial protection.
188. GSM based parameter monitoring system using MAX 232 Serial Communication and analog to digital converters (ADC).
189. Hi-Tech Wireless Equipment controlling System.
190. Microcontroller based Vehicle speed acquisition system.
191. Wireless digital code lock with a status display.
192. Wireless chatting System using RF Communication.
193. Wireless power System distribution and controlling.
194. Wireless data Encryption and Decryption using RF communication.
195. Parking Information System.
196. Electronic Gardener using SOIL Moisture Sensor.
197. PC based home automation.
198. Wireless communication using IR led and detector.
199. Interfacing Microcontroller to GSM modem and application implementation SMS based M2M communication.
200. GPS based road traffic monitoring system.

PC Based Robot (AT89C2051)

The advent of new high-speed technology and the growing computer capacity provided realistic opportunity for new robot controls and realization of new methods of control theory. This technical improvement together with the need for high performance robots created faster, more accurate and more intelligent robots using new robots control devices, new drives and advanced control algorithms. This project describes a new economical solution of robot control systems. The presented robot control system can be used for different sophisticated robot applications. The control system consists of a PC, a microcontroller that collects data from the PC and control the robot. The intelligent control software, which has been developed using high-level graphical programming language (visual basic). A complete solution of a robot control solution is presented in this project. The robot was fully controlled by the PC and the commands from the PC were received by the microcontroller. The wireless video camera, which was embedded on the robot capture the video and it was transmitted and the image, was viewed over the windows. The robot can be used in military applications.


View Video

The ROBOTIC ARM WIRED CONTROL teaches the basic robotic sensing and locomotion principles, testing your motor skills, as you build and control the Arm. You can command this unit with it's five-switch, wired controller with corresponding lights to grab, release, lift, lower, rotate wrist and pilot sideways 350 degrees. After assembly, observe the dynamics of gear mechanisms through the transperent Arm. Five motors and five joints allow flexibility and fun!

Recommended Accessories: For educators and home schoolers. You will find the Personal Computer Interface (optional) very useful tools.