The seminar is about polymers that can emit light when a voltage is applied to it. The structure comprises of a thin film of semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two electrodes (cathode and anode).When electrons and holes are injected from the electrodes, the recombination of these charge carriers takes place, which leads to emission of light .The band gap, ie. The energy difference between valence band and conduction band determines the wavelength (colour) of the emitted light.
They are usually made by ink jet printing process. In this method red green and blue polymer solutions are jetted into well defined areas on the substrate. This is because, PLEDs are soluble in common organic solvents like toluene and xylene .The film thickness uniformity is obtained by multi-passing (slow) is by heads with drive per nozzle technology .The pixels are controlled by using active or passive matrix. The advantages include low cost, small size, no viewing angle restrictions, low power requirement, biodegradability etc. They are poised to replace LCDs used in laptops and CRTs used in desktop computers today. Their future applications include flexible displays which can be folded, wearable displays with interactive features, camouflage etc.
Imagine these scenarios
- After watching the breakfast news on TV, you roll up the set like a large handkerchief, and stuff it into your briefcase. On the bus or train journey to your office, you can pull it out and catch up with the latest stock market quotes on CNBC.
- Somewhere in the Kargil sector, a platoon commander of the Indian Army readies for the regular satellite updates that will give him the latest terrain pictures of the border in his sector. He unrolls a plastic-like map and hooks it to the unit’s satellite telephone. In seconds, the map is refreshed with the latest high resolution camera images grabbed by an Indian satellite which passed over the region just minutes ago.
Don’t imagine these scenarios at least not for too long.The current 40 billion-dollar display market, dominated by LCDs (standard in laptops) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs, standard in televisions), is seeing the introduction of full-color LEP-driven displays that are more efficient, brighter, and easier to manufacture. It is possible that organic light-emitting materials will replace older display technologies much like compact discs have relegated cassette tapes to storage bins. .
The origins of polymer OLED technology go back to the discovery of conducting polymers in 1977,which earned the co-discoverers- Alan J. Heeger , Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa – the 2000 Nobel prize in chemistry. Following this discovery , researchers at Cambridge University UK discovered in 1990 that conducting polymers also exhibit electroluminescence and the light emitting polymer(LEP) was born!.