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Thursday, 27 May 2010

Line Follower

A line follower is an autonomous bot that can follow a specific colored line painted on a surface of different contrast, such as white on black.

To start with first of all I will be discussing a small concept of light. I believe you all know that the light that strikes any platform is reflected. The reflection and absorption coefficient of light depend upon material, color of platform and other factors. In simple words the black surface absorbs the light and the white surface reflects it, this is the basic concept behind making a line follower.

Line Follower

So the line follower has an emitter and a reflector. The reflector receives the light and generates a voltage proportional to the intensity of the light, if this voltage is above a threshold it means SIGNAL=1 (logic one) else SIGNAL= 0 (logic zero).

Let’s take up an example where we have to move our bOt on black surface having white line. Suppose I have two Infra Red (IR) sensor pairs that are on different halves of a bOt with respect to geometrical central axis of the bOt. The sensors are placed in such a way that the white line lies in between both the sensors when the bOt is placed on the white track painted on black surface to move. Now if the white line is between both the sensors while moving forward both the sensors will be on black surface and the detectors/receivers will receive less amount of light since black absorbs light and hence signal provided by both the infra-red receivers will be low.

Line Follower explanation

Now if the heading/direction of the white line changes one of the sensors will move in the region of white line and will start giving output signal as high. This information can be used to ‘turn’ the bOt and orient itself in the right direction. For example in the above figure if the bot is located in position 1, then bOt will move forward and if the bOt is in position 2 it will have to turn left .

Let’s move on and discuss everything step by step in detail. We will be discussing the making of line follower under three heads:

1.) Chassis of robot { those familiar can skip this section}

2.) Electronics/Hardware Designing

3.) Programming/Software Designing

CHASSIS OF ROBOT

1.) Base of robot: The base or the material of the platform of robot can be made with any easily available material like switch board, wood, acrylic sheet or steel sheet. As our robot will be very light, you don’t have to think a lot on strength and other such factors. We will just recommend you to make a small size and light weight bOt. Here we are using, steel base:

Chassis of line follower

2.) Motors and Driving Mechanism:

· We will need a set of two motors that have same rpm (revolution per minute).

· We will be using differential drive for maneuvering our bOt i.e. we will have three wheels for our bOt, the front two will be powered and the rear will be free wheel.

· When the bot is moving straight both the motors should have equal speed.

· For turning, one of the motor is switched off. If we switch off the left motor, the bot will turn left and vice versa.

Line Follower motor

· You can choose a motor of rpm around 100 and a torque of 1kg-cm

MotorLine  follower bOt

3.) Coupling wheels & clamping motors: - For clamping the motors you can use pipe clamps or make right angled clamps. The right angle clamps ensure more rigidness. To couple the motor ensure that the shaft of motor and hole of wheel have equal diameter (if you can’t find one check the tutorial on wheels).

Line follower clampingLine  follower clamping 2

ELECTRONICS

Line follower flowchart

This is a flow chart that explains the working of the bOt in sequence:-

The Infra Red sensors are used to interact with the environment. The emitter sends a ray which is received by detector in the form of voltage and it then amplified by amplifier since the signals are weak (more on this later). Below are the circuit diagrams of Infra-red LED emitter and receiver.

Line  follower IR sensorLine follower IR receiver

Op-Amplifier (LM324)

If the rays received by the IR- LED receiver are above a particular threshold then an amplified signal is generated by the amplifier (LM324). Note that the sensors cannot directly send a signal to the microcontroller as the signal voltage generated by them is too low and even when sensors are on white surface signal generated by them will interpreted low by the microcontroller.

Line Follower LM324

Microcontroller (AT89S52)

The microcontroller receives the signal and responds accordingly. It takes the decision based on input signal received by both the receiver LEDs. It will give command to motors through H-bridge to move forward, or take a left turn or a right turn.

H-bridge (L293B)

The microcontroller sends a signal to the H-bride that acts as a switch. If the signal received by the H-bridge is high it will rotate the motor or else it won’t do so. Note that microcontroller only sends a signal to a switch which gives the voltage required by the motor to rotate. Here we are using L293B which can be used to control two motors.

Pin connections for H-bridge:

ü En1 & En2 are given logic 1 from microcontroller or give 5V from outside and are used to activate/deactivate one ‘half’ of the H-bridge.

ü V is the voltage that you want to supply to the motor(s) : 9 or 12V

ü Vcc is the logic 1 or 5V

Line Follower motor circuit diagram

The complete circuit diagram with all the integrated circuits required for making a line follower is shown below:-

Line follower circuit

Here we are using pins P1.0 and P1.4 for taking inputs from the IR sensors after being amplified by LM324.

P1.0 – Input from left sensor

P1.4 – Input from right sensor

There are six outputs from AT89S52 microcontroller to the H-bridge.

Pins P0.0 and P0.4 are connected to enable pins of the H-bridge. We can use them to deactivate/active the two halves of H-bridge i.e. if pins are set to logic 1 the corresponding half of the H-bridge will be activated.

P0.1 – will drive the left motor in forward direction

P0.2 – will drive the left motor in reverse direction

P0.3 – will drive the right motor in forward direction

P0.5 – will drive the right motor in reverse direction

Programming

Below is the code in C for the line follower.

C Code www.botskool.com

#include

/*

Sensors input port - P1

P1_0 --------> Left sensor

P1_4 --------> Right sensor

Motors output port - P0

P0_0 --------> Enable pin of the left half of the H-bridge

P0_1 --------> will drive the left motor in forward direction

P0_2 --------> will drive the left motor in reverse direction

P0_3 --------> will drive the right motor in forward direction

P0_4 --------> Enable pin of the right half of the H-bridge

P0_5 --------> will drive the right motor in reverse direction

*/

/*Delay function runs an idle loop to create a time delay. If the crystal used is of 11.0592 MHz then the argument passed in delay is in 'milliseconds'.*/

void Delay(unsigned int itime)

{

unsigned int i,j;

for(i=0;i

for(j=0;j<1275;j++);>//Idle loop

}

void Forward()

{

P0_1=1;

P0_2=0;

P0_3=1;

P0_5=0;

}

/*Generally for turning we use a pulsated wave so the bOt doesn’t get out of control i.e. we run the motor for sometime then again stop it and this is done very quickly to create an effective pulse. See the function below.*/

void TurnLeft()

{

P0_1=0; /*Left motor is not running in any direction.*/

P0_2=0;

P0_3=1; /*Right motor is running in forward direction. bOt will eventually turn left*/

P0_5=0;

Delay(50); /* Wait for 50 ms*/

P0_1=0; /*Motors are not running*/

P0_2=0;

P0_3=0;

P0_5=0;

Delay(50); /*Delay of another 50 ms*/

}

/*So in the above program we have effectively created a pulse of 100ms which is on for 50ms and off for another 50ms. You can change this value to suit your needs*/

/*Similarly we can write a function to turn right*/

void TurnRight()

{

P0_1=1; /*Left motor running in forward direction.*/

P0_2=0;

P0_3=0; /*Right motor is not running.*/

P0_5=0;

Delay(50); /*50ms time delay*/

P0_1=0; /*Motors not running in any direction*/

P0_2=0;

P0_3=0;

P0_5=0;

Delay(50); /*50ms time delay*/

}

void main()

{

/* The pins which are receiving inputs from the sensors should be initially set to logic 1.*/

P1_0=1; /*Left sensor input*/

P1_4=1; /*Right sensor input*/

P0_0=1; /*Enable pin of the left half of the H-bridge*/

P0_4=1; /*Enable pin of the right half of the H-bridge*/


//main loop of the program

while(1)

{

if((P1_0==0)&&(P1_4==1))

TurnRight();

else if((P1_0==1)&&(P1_4==0))

TurnLeft();

else

Forward();

}

}

Download c program file - linefollower.c

Download hex file – linefollower.hex

Download AT89X52.h header file

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