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Sunday, 13 February 2011


  • MIMO
  • Surface-Conduction Electron-Emitter Display (SED)
  • Tunable lasers
  • Surround sound system
  • Military Radars
  • Embryonics
  • Smart Cameras in Embedded Systems
  • Visual Neuro Prosthetics
  • Fuzzy Logic
  • Open RAN
  • Asymmetric digital subscriber line
  • Quantum cryptography
  • Clockless Chips
  • Intelligent RAM (IRAM)
  • Cellular Digital Packet Data (Cdpd)
  • SCSI
  • Architectural requirements for a DSP processer
  • Business Process Execution Language (BPEC)
  • High Performance Computing On Grid Databases
  • Next GEneration Internet
  • Advanced Packet Classification Technique
  • Blu Ray Disc
  • Transient Stability Assessment
  • ATM
  • Blue eyes
  • Intruction detection system
  • Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs)
  • Antenna Effect in VLSI Designs
  • Artificial intelligence for speech recognition
  • Communication Onboard High-Speed Public Transport Systems
  • Nanopolymer Technology
  • Palladium cryptography
  • Bluetooth based smart sensor networks
  • Analog-Digital Hybrid Modulation for improved efficiency
  • Fast convergemce algorithms for active noise control in vehicles
  • Josephson junction
  • Polymer memory
  • Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS)
  • Carbon Nanotubes
  • Network on Chip
  • Leo Satellite
  • Fluorescent Multilayer DISC (FMD)
  • 3D optical Data Storage Technology
  • Organic LED
  • Class-D Amplifiers
  • Optical Communications in Space
  • MIMO Wireless Channels: Capacity and Performance Prediction
  • Computer memory based on the protein
  • Embryonic approach towards integrated circuits
  • The Architecture of a Moletronics Computer
  • Plasma antenna
  • Bio Telemetry
  • Harsh Environment LVDT Position Sensors
  • PolyBot - Modular, self-reconfigurable robots
  • Spin Valve Transistor
  • Quadrics network
  • Wisenet (Wireless Sensor Network)
  • Reversible Logic Circuits

Electronics/Instrumentation & Control Engg.

          • Fractal Robot
          • DNA Based Computing
          • Wearable Biosensors
          • Sziklai pair (configuration of two bipolar transistors)
          • Telestrator
          • MiliPede Technology
          • 4G Wire less Systems
          • FireWire
          • Microvia Technology
          • Tele Immersion
          • Cellonics Technology
          • Gene Chips
          • LCoS Display
          • Hydrophones
          • Z-Wave
          • Genetic Programming
          • Mesotechnology
          • Free Space Optics
          • Global System for Mobiles
          • The Ultra Battery
          • Direct to Home Television (DTH)
          • Tagged Command Queuing
          • Satmode
          • Native Command Queuing (NCQ)
          • Digital Micromirror Device
          • Graphics tablet
          • Continuous phase modulation
          • Sputtering
          • Gyrotrons
          • High Altitude Aeronautical Platforms
          • The InfraRed Traffic Logger
          • Soft lithography
          • HyperTransport (HT)
          • Differential signaling
          • Digital Hubbub
          • Embryonics Approach towards Integrated Circuits
          • Boiler Instrumentation and Controls
          • “Slow Light” For Optical Communications
          • Quantum Cryptology - A Reality
          • Real time energy monitoring
          • 3-D Assembly Of Magnetic And Semiconducting Nanoparticles
          • Optical Switching: Techniques and applications
          • High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
          • Power system restructuring
          • Virtual Instrumentation
          • Reliable Multicast Transmission (RMT)
          • Knowledge based Control Systems
          • Free Space Optics for Fixed Wireless Broadband
          • Microprocessor/microcontroller/DSP applications
          • Biomedical instrumentation
          • Optical Networking: Standards and design issues
          • Artificial Intelligence Methods for Dynamic Network Management
          • Digital Signal Processing and its applications
          • Recent Trends In Wireless Communication
          • Radio and Satellite Communication
          • Nanotechnology in optoelectronics
          • Digital Light Processing
          • Lightning Protection Using LFAM
          • Optical Satellite Communication
          • Wearable Bio-Sensors
          • Embryonic approach towards integrated circuits
          • A Novel Rear-End Collision Avoidance System
          • Prepaid Electricity Meter

Electronics/Instrumentation & Control Engg.SEMINAR TOPICS

  • Genetic Engg., Image & speech Processing.
  • Latest Trends In process Automation.
  • Low Quiescent current regulators
  • Microfuel Cells
  • PMR ( Private Mobile Radio) Revolution
  • Smart Cameras in Embedded Systems
  • Cellular Digital Packet Data (Cdpd)
  • Solid State Lighting
  • Organic electronics
  • Oxygen User technology
  • Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT)
  • Microphotonics
  • Virtual retinal display (VRD) Technology
  • Remote energy metering
  • NRAM
  • iButton
  • Animatronics
  • Solar Power Satellite
  • Nano Fog
  • Symbian
  • Air Powered Car
  • Ultra Wide Band ( UWB)Sensors
  • HY-Wire Cars
  • Floating gate Transistor
  • Self Healing Spacecrafts
  • Meso Technology
  • Passive Integration
  • Cholestric Flexible Displays(Ch LCDs)
  • Solid State Lighting
  • Virtual Keyboards
  • Visual Prosthetics
  • High Altitude Aeronautical Platforms


  • Basic Touch-Sensor Screen System
  • Remote Accessible Virtual Instrumentation Control Lab
  • Asynchronous Chips
  • Tools for Nano Technology
  • Advances in Photovoltaic Technology
  • Ultra-Wideband
  • UPS monitoring system
  • Personal entertainment network systems (PENS)
  • Microfactory
  • Smart fibers and active polymers
  • Code Division Duplexing
  • Optical Coherence Tomography
  • Radio Frequency Light Sources
  • 3-D Assembly Of Magnetic And Semiconducting Nanoparticles
  • Mobile Radio Networks
  • 80 core processor
  • Clipped Tag Rfid Technology
  • Ditgital Steganography
  • HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) Technology
  • Military Radars
  • Solar Power Satellites
  • Nanotechnological proposal of RBC
  • Plasma Dynamics

Monday, 7 February 2011

Energy Optimization Mechanism for Mobile Terminals using Vertical Handoff between WLAN and CDMA2000 Networks

This paper presents energy optimization mechanism for mobile terminals (MTs) using vertical handoff between Wireless LAN (WLAN) and CDMA2000 networks. Several techniques for optimizing the power consumption of MTs have been considered in literature. Some of these techniques could be used separately or in tandem. Considering the importance of efficient energy management for MTs, the research in this area could be taken a step further.

The technique considered in this paper allows a multimode terminal to take advantage of two integrated networks to efficiently manage its energy consumption. Two integrated networks considered are WLAN and CDMA2000. This paper develops an algorithm that allows the MT to always get connected to the most cost-effective network. The results obtained showed that the MTs power is more efficiently managed when the MT is using the integrated networks than when it is using each of the networks independently.


In recent times, the use of Internet has allowed users ease of communication access at anywhere at any time. There are also emerging voice and data networks, each requiring mobile access devices. The need for users to take advantage of the various access networks without carrying about multiple terminals has lead to the development of multimode terminals. Most popular types of these multimode terminals presently are those that can access wireless LAN (WLAN) and CDMA2000 networks. Also, the users’ desire to be always best connected anytime, anywhere, with any device has fuelled the research on network integration. Network integration has been shown to have good prospects to both users and network providers alike.

The release of the IEEE 802.11 WLAN standards in 1997 gave rise to a number of other related standards which form the 802.11 family of standards. These standards were made to facilitate the interoperability of WLANs, and allow for the introduction of several new services. One of these services introduced is the public wireless access data networks more commonly known as “hot-spots”. The great success and massive recent deployment of WLAN technology indicates that these networks will play an important role in the development of the 4G networks. To achieve the dream of universal mobile telecommunications as specified by the international telecommunications union (ITU), it is necessary to integrate WLAN and CDMA2000 cellular networks. The Internet certainly, will be used to support this integration because it has become the main thrust of network integration between complementary heterogeneous networks.

WLAN hot-spots and CDMA2000 cellular network are complementary wireless access technologies. Their integration could help to meet the end user’s demand for improved access to services using a “single multi-mode” devices that are mobile and portable with longer battery life. Recent trends indicate that WLAN based on IEEE 802.11 standards and third generation (3G) wireless wide area network such as CDMA2000 Cellular network will co-exist to offer easy Internet access to end users.
Authors: Nathaniel SALAWU and Elizabeth Nonye ONWUKA
Source: Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies

Ultrasound Imaging: Signal Acquisition – New Advanced Processing for Biomedical and Industrial Applications

Use of ultrasound, namely in the biomedical diagnosis and industrial fields, pioneered in 1950s, is today particularly widespread. In the last decades, ultrasound imaging has benefited from advances in numerical technologies such as signal processing. On the other hand, the use of ultrasound imaging has increased the need for signal processing techniques.

This paper presents a review and the up-to-date developments in ultrasound imaging techniques, including elementary principles, signal acquisition and processing, from one dimensional to multidimensional systems. This paper also deals with typical relevant applications.


Due to its noninvasive and non ionizing nature and its flexibility, ultrasound (US) systems are a widely used modality for real time imaging. Though a high number of applications are met in the biomedical field, industry remains an area of important use. Ultrasound imaging is continuously growing in each of these fields. This is namely due to three reasons. The first one is linked to important advances in transducers (used for generation and detection of ultrasound) technology. The second is the improvement brought by advances in digital technologies, and namely advances in signal and image processing methods and technologies. The last one is the wide variety of applications in medical as well as in industrial areas. Concerning medical areas, for example, applications are as diverse as the different parts of the human body.

Utilization of Ultrasound imaging ranges from 1D to 4D applications. Obtaining high quality images for visualization or characterization purposes has been a big concern for long time. The first works were performed in 1D and concern the so-called A mode, that is the representation of ultrasound signal magnitude versus time. Alternatively, interrogating materials in one direction and displaying a single signal value over time as a scrolling display gives the so-called time motion (TM) mode. Generally speaking the 1D (US) signal processing is intended for quantitative extraction of a single parameter. This is typically the case for velocity estimation either through US Doppler spectrum estimation, US time of flight estimation or material or tissue characterization [1],[2]. Multi-dimensional signal or image, namely 2,3 or 4D processing, deals on one hand with improvement of image quality in terms of speckle processing, resolution, contrast enhancement and on the other hand with appropriate image visualization.

Neuro-Fuzzy DC Motor Speed Control Using Particle Swarm Optimization

This paper presents an application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) control for DC motor speed optimized with swarm collective intelligence.

First, the controller is designed according to Fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. Secondly, an adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller of the DC motor speed is then designed and simulated; the ANFIS has the advantage of expert knowledge of the Fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. Finally, the ANFIS is optimized by Swarm Intelligence.

Digital simulation results demonstrate that the deigned ANFIS-Swarm speed controller realize a good dynamic behavior of the DC motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot, give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the ANFIS alone.
Authors: Boumediene ALLAOUA, Abdellah LAOUFI, Brahim GASBAOUI, Abdessalam ABDERRAHMANI
Source: Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies

Performance Evaluation of Embedded Microcomputers for Avionics Applications

Embedded microcomputers are used in a wide range of applications nowadays. Avionics is one of these areas and requires extra attention regarding reliability and determinism. Thus, these issues should also be born in mind in addition to performance when evaluating embedded microcomputers.

This master thesis suggests a framework for performance evaluation of two members of the PowerPC microprocessor family, namely the MPC5554 from Freescale and PPC440EPx from AMCC, and analyzes the results within and between these processors. The framework can be generalized to be used in any microprocessor family, if required.

Apart from performance evaluation, this thesis also suggests also a new terminology by introducing the concept of determinism levels to be able to estimate determinism issues in avionics applications more clearly, which is crucial regarding the requirements and working conditions of this very application. Such estimation does not include any practical results as in performance evaluation, but rather remains theoretical. Similar to Automark™ used by AutoBench™ in the EEMBC Benchmark Suite, we introduce a new performance metric score that we call ”Aviomark” and we carry out a detailed comparison of Aviomark with the traditional Automark™ score to be able to see how Aviomark differs from Automark™ in behavior.

Finally, we have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) which works in parallel with the Green Hills MULTI Integrated Development Environment (IDE) in order to simplify and automate the evaluation process. By the help of the GUI, the users will be able to easily evaluate their specific PowerPC processors by starting the debugging from MULTI IDE.
Authors: Celal Can Bilen, John Alcalde González
Source: Jönköping University

Simulation with VHDL and code generation

SyncSim is a simulator framework capable of loading different simulator modules. It is used today with a module that simulates hardware models described with Java. This simulator module is used together with a model of a MIPS processor core in courses given at EISLAB.

The purpose of this thesis is to create a new simulator module for SyncSim which can use hardware models described with a mixture of VHDL and Java and to implement a C compiler that can generate code compatible with the existing MIPS model.

EESim is a simulator module for an early version of SyncSim that uses VHDL to describe the hardware model. This simulator module will be extended to meet the requirements of the new simulator. The Portable C Compiler (PCC) has previously been released as open source and work has been done by others to modernize it. PCC will be ported to the MIPS architecture and its portability evaluated.

The result is a new version of EESim that can simulate models which mix VHDL and Java, and a PCC port capable of producing MIPS assembly code. With regards to portability PCC was found to be relatively easy to modify for use on a new computer architecture.
Authors: Jan Enoksson, Simon Olsson
Source: Luleå University of Technology

Zigbee Wireless Relay Control and Power Monitoring System

We designed a system for wirelessly controlling relays and monitoring current. This is used for a home load simulation. By wirelessly turning relays on and off by sending commands from a PC to a microcontroller we can change the total load (current) to our simulated home.

For wireless communication, we used XBee Series 2 Zigbee RF modules. One of these modules was connected to a microcontroller and the home load simulation, while another was connected to the PC, which was used for collecting and displaying data as well as for relay monitoring and control.

Background Theory:

What we have built is a simple transmission system based on the Zigbee routing and networking protocol. This protocol and its details are discussed in greater detail in the Standards section (below); in this section, we focus on underlying network theory and the role this theory played in our project.

Data networks (and transmission systems) are typically divided into various layers based on functionality. This is sometimes called a “protocol stack” (in our case, we are using a “Zigbee stack”). Essentially, the lower the layer, the closer we are to worrying about actual physical electrons flying around. Conversely, the higher the layer, the less we are worrying about physical constraints and the more abstract the data structures are that we are dealing with and manipulating.

The most famous of these layering models is the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model, which is shown below:

Authors: Shrey Surana, Casey Worthington
Source: Cornell University

A High-Speed Clockless Serial Link Transceiver

We present a high-speed, clockless, serial link transceiver for inter-chip communication in asynchronous VLSI systems.

Serial link transceivers achieve high offchip data rates by using multiplexing transmitters and demultiplexing receivers that interface parallel on-chip data paths with high-speed, serial off-chip buses. While synchronous transceivers commonly use multi-phase clocks to control the data multiplexing and demultiplexing, our clockless transceiver uses a token-ring architecture that eliminates complex clock generation and synchronization circuitry.

Furthermore, our clockless receiver dynamically self-adjusts its sampling rate to match the bit rate of the transmitter. Our SPICE simulations report that in a 0.18- um CMOS technology this transceiver design operates at up to 3-Gb/s and dissipates 77 mW of power with a 1.8-V supply voltage.


We describe the design of a high-speed, clockless, serial link transceiver. As the demand for off-chip bandwidth grows with on-chip operating frequency, high bit-rate I/O pins become increasingly necessary for inter-chip signaling interfaces in VLSI systems. While it is always possible to increase off-chip bandwidth by making buses wider with more I/O pins, it is often impractical due to cost and limits in packaging technology.

This suggests a chip design should efficiently utilize its existing I/O pins by driving them at high bit rates. An attractive high bit-rate I/O communication scheme, utilized in high-speed synchronous links, multiplexes and demultiplexes on-chip data onto a high-speed, off-chip serial bus. In this paper we propose an analogous scheme for asynchronous links.
Authors: John Teifel and Rajit Manohar
Source: Cornell University

Robo Design to pick everyday objects

In this project, you can learn how robotic technology can improve the lives of people with disabilities to help them pick everyday objects. In the laboratory, Lego Mindstorms NXT kits are used to create an artificial arm or hand that can lift small objects, such as a coffee cup.

In the process, you can discover and explore the following concepts and ideas: Hooke’s Law, hysteresis, Newton’s Second Law, accuracy and precision, rapid prototyping, and the relationship between the voltage applied to a motor and its speed.

Author: Dr. Chris Macnab
Co-Authors: Dr. James Smith, Dr. Karl T. Kalveram, Laurence Turner
Source: Real World Engineering Projects

Laser Guided Vehicle: On Navigation Using Two Synchronized Lasers

The work done in this master thesis concerns laser guided vehicles, and more specifically the autonomous navigation by following the edge of a road. The idea is that using two synchronized lasers on top of each other would increase the robustness of the road detection, compared to only one laser.

The algorithm was developed in Matlab, using a sequence of scans recorded on a snowy road with snow piles on the sides. The road detection uses the Hough transform for each scan. The relative position of the robot on the road is then estimated from the road edges detections. The control law is based on the “dog-rabbit principle”.

Simulations were done in Matlab, and a few tests have also been done on the MICA wheelchair. The algorithm was successful when following a straight corridor, but some more work has to be put into dealing with intersections, and on predicting the detection.
Source: Luleå University of Technology
Author: Marion Billaux

Analysis of Breakdown Voltages and Depletion Region Width of 4H-SiC Vertical Double Implanted MOSFET (ECE/EEE Project)

The semiconductor based electronic devices that can function at ambient temperatures higher than 1500C without external cooling system could greatly benefit a variety of application. When Silicon Power device work at a temperature above 2000C then it is problematic because of the self heating is increased, also the internal junction temperature and leakage increased. To work in high temperature with ease it is required to used high band gap devices. For all of these requirements Silicon devices are the optimum choices.

Due to various properties of Silicon carbide like lower intrinsic carrier concentration (10–35 orders of magnitude), higher electric breakdown field (4–20 times), higher thermal conductivity (3–13 times), larger saturated electron drift velocity (2–2.5 times) it replaces Si material very quickly in the semiconductor industry.

The fact that wide band gap semiconductors are capable of electronic functionality at much higher temperatures than silicon has partially fueled their development, particularly in the case of SiC. 4H-SiC is a potentially useful material for high temperature devices because of its refractory nature, high thermal conductivity, wide band gap (2.2 eV) and high electron mobility comparable to that of Si.

The present work aims at the design of high breakdown voltage 10kV 4H-SiC DIMOSFET with Gaussian profile in drift region to show its characteristics and various properties. In Gaussian doping profile it is found that the height of drift region h at 10 KV is 102 μm. At that particular point the avalanche breakdown voltage is about 9.063 KV. The calculation of Depletion region Width at different breakdown voltage and at different height is to be done and corresponding graph is shown.
Source: Thapar University
Author: Ashish Kumar Sahu

Minor projects

  1. Digital Thermometer
  2. Infrared Remote controlled for home appliances switch
  3. Digital Combination Lock
  4. Security System Using laser Rays
  5. Digital Clock
  6. FM Transmitter
  7. Advanced FM Transmitter
  8. FM Receiver
  9. Multi Siron (Police siron, ambulance siron,Fire Brigade siron, Machine gun )
  10. Automatic Water level controller
  11. Automatic Water level controller with spoken Message (attention please your water tank is full please shut off the motor)
  12. Fire alarm
  13. Automatic traffic light controller
  14. 25 Tune ( Hindi song tunes )Musical bell
  15. Sun-Down switch( Advanced Street light controller)
  16. Visitor counter
  17. Pollution controlling Tower ( It filters the solid particles from smoke)
  18. Effect of current through a magnetic coil
  19. Generation of electricity by moving magnetic field
  20. Clap switch
  21. Two digit industrial object counter
  22. Three digit industrial object counter
  23. Advanced Ni-Cad Battery Charger
  24. Mobile charger using IC 555
  25. Earth quack sensor
  26. Business shops shutter guard
  27. Robotic Car (Controlled By Wired Remote Control)
  28. Robotic Car (Controlled by Radio Frequency Remote control)
  29. Model Of Voting Machine
  30. Copper Electro Plating
  31. Wind Mill (Electricity generation by wind)
  32. Mobile shield
  33. Intelligent automatic Three phase shifter system
  34. Fastest Finger Quiz Master
  35. Disco Light (Running Lights)
  36. Magic tester (Can Detect electricity from distance and is very useful in finding faults)
  37. Fused Tube Glower (this circuit is used to glow even Fused tub light)
  38. Laser light fence ( A Security system to cover your whole house)
  39. Parrot sound Electric Doorbell
  40. Over Voltage Electricity Tripping switch
  41. Power saving Electronic Choke For Tube-Lights
  42. Solid State Lamp (Bulb) dimmer
  43. Water level indicator (Shows the level of water in overhead water tank)
  44. Variable Regulated Power Supply (0-32Volts)
  45. Automatic Night Lamp
  46. Extra ordinary staircase light switch
  47. Automatic railway gate controller
  48. Ultrasonic mosquito repellent
  49. Letter box indicator
  50. Multi purpose mix amplifier
  51. Visual telephone locator (Electric bulb will glow on ringing the telephone bell)
  52. Quiz Timer
  53. Intercom
  54. Dancing bulb on music (the intensity of light changes with the sound)
  55. Listening bug
  56. Infra red shadow detector
  57. Temperature controller
  58. Zener diode tester
  59. Head phone amplifier
  60. Magic Organ (light operated music generation)
  61. Telephone tapping detector (If anyone lifts the phone in parallel connected phone)
  62. Toy Telephone
  63. Rain alarm
  64. Electronic magic door lock using password
  65. Lie detector
  66. Mosquito repellent machine
  67. Telephone Call detector
  68. Fuse tube light glower without any choke
  69. Morning alarm
  70. Magic telephone lock
  71. 3 in 1 circuit (light blinker, rain alarm, water tank alarm, light detector)
  72. Low price hearing aid
  73. Rat repellent machine
  74. Automatic Phase Changer
  75. Flying Saucer
  76. Anti-Collision Rear Light
  77. Light Fence
  78. MAT Switch
  79. 5-Bands Graphic Equalizer
  80. Clock Timer
  81. Fully Automatic Emergency Light
  82. IR Music Transmitter and Receiver
  83. Electronic Horn
  84. Ultrasonic Proximity Detector
  85. Secret Bell
  86. Variable Power Supply Using a Fixed-Voltage Regulator IC
  87. Appliance Timer-Cum-Clap Switch
  88. Telephone-Operated Calling System
  89. Front Door Guard
  90. Bell-Cum Light Controller
  91. Friendly Charger for Mobile Phones
  92. Hearing Aid
  93. Speed Control of DC Motor Using Pulse-Width Modulation
  94. Remote-Controlled Fan Regulator
  95. Low-Power Voltage Doublers
  96. Parrot-Sounding AC Doorbell
  97. Multi-Melody Generator with Instrumental Effect
  98. School/College Quiz Buzzer
  99. Visual AC Mains Voltage Indicator
  100. Simple Short-Wave Transmitter
  101. Solar Lighting System
  102. Infrared Bug
  103. Picnic Lamp
  104. Versatile Power Supply
  105. Ultrasonic Proximity Detector
  106. Shadow Alarm
  107. IR Burglar Deterrents
  108. Versatile Water-Level Controller
  109. Automatic-Off Timer for CD Players
  110. Heat-Sensitive Switch
  111. Sensitive Vibration Detector
  112. Digital Dice
  113. Remote-Controlled Power-Off Switch
  114. Little Door Guard
  115. Stress Meter
  116. Teleconferencing System
  117. Medium-Power FM Transmitter
  118. Smart Cell phone Holder
  119. Fuel Reserve Indicator for Vehicles
  120. Brake Failure Indicator

Thursday, 3 February 2011

Modelling of Transformers with Internal Incipient Faults

Internal winding faults resulting from the degradation of transformer winding insulation can be catastrophic and hence expensive. In the new environment of deregulation, utilities therefore are needing inexpensive methods employed to detect such faults in the incipient stage.

The development of an accurate internal fault diagnostic technique for transformers must be based on analysis of quantities from faults scenarios.

Considering the safety of personal, the damage that will occur in the transformer, the consumed time, and related cost, simulation involving the modeling of transformers at various incipient fault stages is the best way to generate these fault cases.

In this paper, the method used contains a degrading insulation model and a transformer internal short circuit fault model. Since deteriorating insulation involves two stages aging and arcing, the degrading insulation model is composed of an aging model and an arcing model connected in parallel. The degrading insulation model was combined with internal short circuit model, to simulate internal winding incipient faults.

The transformer internal incipient fault model was implemented using commercially available finite element analysis software. Various incipient fault scenarios at different degrading levels of the transformer winding insulation were simulated.

In these fault scenarios, the terminal voltages and currents of the transformer were analysed in both time domain and frequency domain.

The characteristics obtained from the simulation were compared with the characteristics obtained from some experimental fault cases that conveyed incipient like behaviour...

Condition Based Maintenance of Underground Cable Systems

De-regulation of power market brings changes by creating an increase in competition among utilities. Minimizing the cost of maintenance and losses due to cable failures is a key to successful operation.

Simulations demonstrate the possibility of applying condition-based maintenance for the entire service period of a cable system if maintenance cost could be lowered to a certain level.

The aging of power cables begins long before the cable actually fails. Preventing incipient failures developing into failures can greatly reduce loses. There are several external phenomena indicating undergoing aging problems, including partial discharges, hot spots, mechanical cracks and changes of insulation dielectric properties.

Most sensors currently used are cumbersome to move, complicated to use, or destructive to cables. In the presented project, non destructive miniature sensors capable of determining the status of power cable systems are developed and integrated into a monitoring system, including a video sensor for visual inspection, an infrared thermal sensor for detection of hot spots, an acoustic sensor for identifying partial discharge activities, and a fringing electric sensor for determining the aging status of insulating material.

Mobile monitoring can greatly reduce the maintenance cost and supply more accurate status of local cables over traditional monitoring techniques. The application range of condition-based maintenance can be expanded greatly with the aid of mobile monitoring.

A novel autonomous robot is developed A graphical user interface on the host computer is developed to enable motion control, sensor control and signal processing. Presented work demonstrates the use of mobile monitoring system for underground power cable systems to be viable and economically efficient...

Compensation of harmonic currents utilizing AHC

Today, the situation on low-voltage AC systems has become a serious concern.The quality of electrical power in commercial and industrial installations is undeniably decreasing.

In addition to external disturbances, such as outages, sags and spikes due to switching and atmospheric phenomena, there are inherent, internal causes specific to each site and resulting from the combined use of linear and non-linear loads.

Untimely tripping of protection devices, harmonic overloads, high levels of voltage and current distortion, temperature rise in conductors and generators all contribute to reducing the quality and the reliability of a low-voltage AC system.

The loads which consume non-sinusoidal currents are called as non-linear load.This type of load is used for the conversion, variation and regulation of electrical power in commercial, industrial and residential installations.

Acurrate signal conditioning plays an important role in voltage signals.Proper signal conditioning converts the high power signals to meet the requirements of the low voltage control circuits.Increase in non-linearity causes different undesirable features like low power factor and low efficiency.

Active harmonic conditioners are proving to be viable option for controlling harmonic distortion levels in many applications.It has been proved to be effective when the load is non-linear.

The effective operation of the active harmonic conditioner is based on the accurate sensing of the source current,source voltage and DC side capacitor voltage of the filter...

Biomass Fuelled Power Plant

There is a great desire by many individuals and entities worldwide to convert the energy contained in indigenous biomass resources to useful forms of fuel and power at a cost that is competitive with non-renewable energy resources and with a responsible view toward the environment.

Hence a new generation of small-scale biomass fueled power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood.

They are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nutshells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants.

This seminar summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on its engineering challenges.

This project should be highly emphasized in terms of cost efficiency. Many people believe that the act of pollution abatement requires a great deal of financial investment. However, this example has demonstrated that the concept is not entirely true.

Also, the process of managing waste while producing energy at the same time is extremely desirable for sustainable development practices because it increases development and improves the environment.

When introducing new and environmentally friendly energy, supply of the energy needs to be consistent, appropriate for the climate, and government needs to give support in terms of incentives for use.

Producing energy from biomass seems like a simple and cheap practice to adopt.
Biomass may contribute to a large extent to a sustainable Energy Future in Europe. Specially, due to its properties biomass is best suited for small scale decentralized CHP-Plants.

Limited interest in bioenergy within the last decades leads to a lack of efficient technologies for this purpose. Increased research work, a closer cooperation among research institutes and industry and a better information transfer are essential to activate the enormous potential of biomass..

Magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology (MHD )

The Magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology (MHD ) is the production of electrical power utilising a high temperature conducting plasma moving through an intense magnetic field. The conversion process in MHD was initially described by Michael Faraday in 1893. However the actual utilisation of this concept remained unthinkable. The first known attempt to develop an MHD generator was made at Westing house research laboratory (USA) around 1936.

The efficiencies of all modern thermal power generating system lies between 35-40% as they have to reject large quantities of heat to the environment. In all other conventional power plant, first the thermal energy of the gas is directly converted in to electrical energy. Hence it is known as direct energy conversion system.

The MHD power plants are classified in to Open and Closed cycle based on the nature of processing of the working fluid. With the present research and development programmes, the MHD power generation may play an important role in the power industry in future to help the present crisis of power.

The MHD process can be used not only for commercial power generation but also for so may other applications.The economic attractiveness of MHD for bulk generation of power from fossil fuel has been indicated in many design studies and cost estimates of conceptual plants. MHD promises a dramatic improvement in the cost of generating electricity from coal, beneficial to the growth of the national economy. The extensive use of MHD can help in saving billions of dollars towards fuel prospects of much better fuel utilization are most important, but the potential of lower capital costs with increased utilization of invested capital provides also a very important economic incentive. The beneficial environmental aspects of MHD are probably of equal or even greater significance. The MHD energy conversion process cab contribute greatly to the solution of the serious air and thermal pollution problems faced by all steam - electric power plants while it simultaneously assures better utilization for our natural resources. It can therefore be claimed that the development of MHD for electric utility power generation is an objective of national significance. The high temperature MHD process makes it possible to take advantage of the highest flame temperatures which can be produced by combustion from fossil fuel. While commercial nuclear reactors able to provide heat for MHD have yet to be developed, the combined use to MHD with nuclear heat source holds great promise for the future.In India, coal is by far the most abundant fossil fuel and thus the major energy source for fossil fueled MHD power generation. Before large central station power plants with coal as the energy source can be become commercially viable, further development is necessary..

Night Vision

The first thing you probably think of when you see the words night vision is a spy or action movie you've seen, in which someone straps on a pair of night-vision goggles to find someone else in a dark building on a moonless night. And you may have wondered "Do those things really work? Can you actually see in the dark?"

The answer is most definitely yes. With the proper night-vision equipment, you can see a person standing over 200 yards (183 m) away on a moonless, cloudy night! Night vision can work in two very different ways, depending on the technology used.

Image enhancement - This works by collecting the tiny amounts of light, including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.

Thermal imaging - This technology operates by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light.

Hotter objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings.
The Micro Channel Plates are applicable only to image enhancement type of night vision equipments.

The original purpose of night vision was to locate enemy targets at night. Added advantages provided by the micro channel plate technology has helped in constructing night vision equipments with reduced size, weight and improved performance characteristics compared to conventional cascade tube based image intensifiers.

New generation image intensifier tubes have improved gains, and yet are one-tenth the size and one-third the cost of earlier tubes. The application of micro channel plates in night vision equipments will certainly help to improve the chances of safety and security provided to the user...

Voltage Sag Analysis

voltage, usually caused by a fault in A voltage sag is a momentary decrease in the rms the utility transmission line or distribution system within customer facility.

It is a temporary voltage drop below 90% of the nominal voltage level. Voltage sags and momentary power interruptions are probably the most important power quality problems affecting industrial and large commercial customers.

This paper describes the causes of voltage sags, their impacts on equipment operations and possible solutions. This paper focuses on system faults as the major cause of voltage sags.

The sensitivity of different types of equipments including programmable logic controllers and motor contactors is analyzed. Then the range of fault locations on the power system that can cause problems is estimated (area of vulnerability).

Available methods of power conditioning for these sensitive equipments are also described in this paper.

The problems of voltage sags can be tackled in two ways. The customer will have to improve the ride through capability of their sensitive equipment. If system power conditioning is expensive it may be economical in the long term to improve the design of the equipment.

  • Mitigation of voltage sags requires careful inspection of the characteristics of the process and of the nature and origin of events.

  • The installation of mitigation devices (normally the only choice for the customers) can be seen as a short term solution. The mitigation capability of these devices is mainly limited by the energy storage capacity.

  • Only improvement of system performance (for long deep sags) and of equipment tolerance (for short, shallow sags) can solve the problem in the long term.

Load monitoring seminar

power system during a given period of time. Non-intrusive monitoring2 is the monitoring of any system or a parameter of the system without actually entering the system i.e., without the system feeling the presence of the monitoring system.

Hence, non-intrusive load monitoring is the monitoring of the electrical load coming onto the system without actually entering the premises.

The interest among the research community to obtain individual load information such as the nature of the load, its energy consumption, the duration for which it comes on to the system and the time of the day when it was on and off etc. in a network has given rise to many methods of doing so.

However, majority of these methods are intrusive3 in nature since they require the installation of sensors and other data acquisition hardware4 to each device in the circuit. This not only makes the system intrude into consumer’s property but also makes it very expensive.

Load monitoring is the technique of tracking the various types of electrical loads coming onto the power system during a period of time. NALM is the monitoring of any system or a parameter of a system without actually entering the system. NALM has wide range of applications such as power monitoring of devices, monitoring of remote loads & monitoring of individual loads.

Also CIMS (centre for intelligent Monitoring system) is used to monitor wide range of parameters such as temperature, Light pressure, colour, sound radio freq, electrical current and voltage etc.

To conclude that, non intrusive load monitoring is a very cost effective monitoring system in many applications. This can also provide a very convenient and effective method of gathering load data compared to traditional means of placing sensors on each of the individual components of the load...

Tuesday, 1 February 2011

DD Using Bio-robotics

In order to measure quantitatively the neuro-psychomotor conditions of an individual with a view to subsequently detecting his/her state of health, it is necessary to obtain a set of parameters such as reaction time, speed, strength and tremor. By processing these parameters through the use of fuzzy logic it is possible to monitor an individual's state of health, .i.e. whether he/she is healthy or affected by a particular pathology such as Parkinson's disease, dementia, etc.

The set of parameters obtained is useful not only to diagnose neuro-motor pathologies (e.g. Parkinson Disease), but also to assess general everyday health or to monitor sports performance; moreover, continuous use of the device by an individual for health-monitoring purposes, not only allows for detection of the onset of a particular pathology but also provides greater awareness in terms of how life style or certain habits tend to have repercussions on psycho-physical well-being. Since an individual's state of health should be continually monitored, it is essential that he or she can manage the test autonomously without his/her emotional state being influenced: autonomous testing is important, as the individual is likely to be more relaxed thus obviating emotional problems. The new system has been designed with reference to the biomechanical characteristics of the human finger.

Disease detector (DDX) is a new bio robotic device that is a fuzzy based control system for the detection of neuro-motional and psychophysical health conditions. The initial experimental system (DD1) and the current system (DD2) are not easily portable and, even if they are very reliable, cannot estimate the patient health beyond the typical parameters of Parkinson's disease nor are they able to remotely transmit such diagnoses.

This new bio-robotic system is exploited in order to obtain an intelligent and reliable detector supported by a very small and portable device, with a simple joystick with few buttons, a liquid-display (LCD), and a simple interface for remote communication of diagnosis. It may be adopted for earth and space applications, because of its portability, in order to measure all the reactions in front of external effects.

The DDX control system consists of a small board with an internal fuzzy microcontroller that acquires, through the action on a button on the joystick, some important parameters: reaction time, motion speed, force of the finger on the button, and tremor and analyses them by fuzzy rules in order to detect the patient's disease class. Moreover this new device also includes a system to detect vocal reaction. The resulting output can be visualized through a display or transmitted by a communication interface.


Reaction time, speed, force, and tremor are parameters that are used to obtain a quantitative instrumental determination of a patient's neuro-psychophysical health. These parameters have been used in the study of the progression of Parkinson's disease, a particularly degenerative neural process, but these parameters can also be useful in detecting the wellness of a healthy person. As a matter of fact, these measurements turn out to be an excellent method of finding reactive parameters alteration due not only to a pathology, but also, for example, to the use of drugs, alcohol, drugs used in the treatment of mental conditions, or other substances that could affect a person's reactive and coordination capabilities.